How to make Jadam microorganism solution (JMS) This method of cultivating indigenous microorganism using potato was developed by Youngsang Cho in 2013. The knowledge has been disclosed on Jadam website, Korean and English books to be shared with all farmers of the world Hello. I am Youngsang Cho, president of Jadam Organic Farming Today I will explain about cultivating microorganisms People automatically think that cultivating microbes is difficult but it is not so In the past, all Korean households knew how to brew wine Brewing wine for drinking and cultivating microbes for farming is in fact identical in their principles For wine, you’d put in cooked rice, add water, put in starter (nu-ruk), and shut lid Then there’d be lots and lots of bubbles; and when bubbles stopped, alcohol was ready Same for microbe solution, use it when foams reach the peak After foams died down, it is turned into liquid fertilizer So be proud, farmers! You already know all about culturing microbes So-called experts make things complicated and difficult to deprive you of your confidence First you need a barrel to grow the microbes in You also need food for microbes (called “medium”), and starter to inoculate the solution This is the easiest and most simple method of cultivating microbes on earth After many experiments, we found that best food was cooked potato with some sea salt added That is what we will be showing you today For the starter (for inoculation), you bring leaf mold from any nearby mountain or forest First principle in Jadam method is that you do not adjust the water temperature to a fixed level Some claim that 32ºC (90ºF) is the best for growing microbes but if you do that, you will end up with microbial solution full of microbes that are powerless outside that temperature; you effectively lose diversity The key is to leave the barrel in the same temperature condition as that of the crops That way, you get microbes that are most effective in the very environment that the plants are in So from spring to late autumn, leave this cultivating barrel with the crops Indoors for greenhouses and outside for opem field crops However, when water temperature drops to below 18ºC (64.4ºF) like in late autumn, winter and early spring the microbial propagation is not as active. In that case, use electric heater like this to raise the temp to above 20ºC (68ºF); and then cultivate First, I demonstrate cultivation for warm period of from spring to autumn that does not require heating This is a 100 L (26 gal) barrel; you can use 200 L (53 gal) or go small like 25 L (7 gal) You can do it large like 500 L (132 gal) All you need to do is downscale or upscale the potato and sea salt according to the water volume A potato normally weighs 200 g (0.44 lb), and for 100 L (26 gal) of JMS, you put in one potato So for 200 L, put in 2 potatoes; for 500 L, 5 potatoes Sea salt too is easy; you use 100 g for 100 L. So for making 200 L of JMS, add 200 g of salt Today is Nov 3 and it is cold outside. Let’s measure the water temperature because it is indoors here It is 17.5ºC (63.5ºF); since it is below 18ºC, we’d normally recommend heated cultivation But for the sake of filming we’ll just go ahead without heating This is 206.2 gram We’ll put these 2 potatoes in 100 L (26 gal). It’s a bit heavier than 100 g, but it doesn’t matter Get a socks or stocking, or if you like it more fancy, get a cheese cloth Put in the boiled potatoes in the socks This thing will float in water, so put in a rock, or anything heavy to sink it Tie and hang the socks onto a stick above the barrel This is leaf mold we collected from nearby mountain 70 percent of Korean land is mountaineous; you can get this everywhere Leaf mold is not simple soil; it is full of life The life in them are indigenous ones that adapted to the local environment for millions of years Single pinch of leaf mold will have millions and millions of diverse organisms Neglecting such abundance on our soil, Korea imports microbes made in Okinawa, Japan That became a national organic project. What a comedy. When I went to Japan, Japanese farmers did not use EM that much, citing that they were fit for Okinawa climate only Don’t bring your microbes from Okinawa, bring it from your home, nearby fields and under the trees Simply remove the top leaf layer and collect the decomposing leaf plus soil mixture In Korea, we have pine trees, oak trees and all sorts of trees; don’t worry too much, just collect the whole bunch Some people assert that leaf mold has to be “roasted” to kill the bugs… please let’s not make things difficult In Jadam, we like to do things roughly because that is so much easier. When I say you add 500 g (1.1 lb) of leaf mold, just pick up a scoop like so, and that is 500 g 500 g is for 500 L, so for 100 L, we put in smaller amount of leaf mold like so… Put the leaf mold in the socks; this is full of microbes now Also add a rock to sink it Again, tie and hang it This is non-heated method for warm period of from spring to autumn You knead and dissolve the potatoes into water Do it thoroughly; see the potato juice seeping out? It is soft and squashy; it feels a bit weird kneading it like so Don’t just hang it; knead and dissolve the potatoes See how potatoes dissolves into the water in murky juice? Potatoes nearly vanished now. Raw potatoes don’t work; boil them Mouths of microbes are tiny; you want to make potato easily edible for them Raw potatoes do not work because their particles are too big and thus takes too long for the microbes to feed If you don’t want to do this; just use a blender and turn potato into juice We demonstrate without machine because we want to make our technology as much feasible in poor countries as possible Many cases, you wouldn’t have an electric blender in Africa We do the same for leaf mold This is not only dirt; it is full of microbes They will feed on the potato juice Next we boost minerals by adding sea salt Sea salt may look insignificant; but in fact they have 83 minerals The mineral balance of sea salt is same as amniotic fluid of mother and human blood plasma which is a proof why plants and animals came from the sea This is 100 g (0.2 lb) of sea salt; this was measured precisely Dissolve it Don’t just throw in sea salt or else they will just sink to the bottom; dissolve it like so first You can replace sea salt with sea water; actually sea water is better because a drop of sea water is also full of microbes; that is what we like Volume of sea water should be 18 L (4.8 gal) for 500 L (132 gal) to replace 500 g (1.1 lb) of sea salt Let’s stir to mix the minerals evenly So that is everything to it; quite simple Just like our ancestors used to brew wine; the method is basically the same Just loosely shut the lid like so Almost everybody advocates the use of aerators; Jadam does not We do not use aerators because first, the environment microbes will be living in is mostly an-aerobic, i.e., deep in the soil So we want to grow anaerobic microbes Second advantage is that the method becomes simple; and the nutrient loss is minimized Aerating machines look fancy but they destroy vitamins and amino acids of the solution Third, it is easy to recognize the period of peak foam which would with aerator be invisible And peak foam is when you want to use the JMS From now on, we will from time to time film the surface to show you the development of the foams Heated culvitation of microbes After cold has passed and spring has come, and before cold arrives in late autumn, use this non-heated method But when temperature drops below 18ºC (64.4ºF), it is difficult to cultivate microorganisms Measure the temperature of the water and if it is colder than 18ºC (64.4ºF), we recommend you use a heater This is a 1.5W heater; larger ones come in 3W or 5W Always connect with ELCB for safety This heater will be on for 2 or 3 days and the plug can catch fire An ELCB will prevent that If you just pumped up underground water, the water will be very cold Don’t cultivate microbes in cold water right away Pump up underground water and wait for it to warm to above 20ºC (68ºF) and then start cultivation About 15 minutes ago, we’ve set the heater at 25ºC (77ºF); let’s see how much the water warmed The temperature is slightly over 22ºC (72ºF); the center will be a bit warmer There is a sensor to the heater; so when it gets cold at night, heater will come on; if it not so cold, it will turn off We do the same thing; put in potatoes and leaf mold with a weight Hang the potatoes Hang the leaf mold Knead and dissolve potatoes into water You can make it easier by blending the potatoes first before putting into socks …almost done Let’s work on the leaf mold now This is 100 g (0.2 lb) of sea salt; dissolve and pour in 3.5 L (0.9 gal) of sea water can replace 100 g (0.2 lb) of sea salt Stir the whole thing We wrapped this tight with insulation Be aware that in winter, ground can be very cold; so place insulation at the bottom too The top too, should be sealed with insulation to keep the heat from escaping The whole solution has to stay warm. Do not let heat escape through the bottom or side or top Keep the temperature at around 22-23ºC (72-73ºF). Too hot is not good either Insulate well so that the temperature is even throughout the solution Then it will only take 2-3 days in winter Where to make this? Indoors protected from wind is best like greenhouse If you have to make it outside, wrap this air-tight to maximize insulation But we’d recommend making it indoors like in a greenhouse This is non-heating and this one is heating method We fed the microbes potatoes and sea salt As for the amount of potatoes – 1 kg (2.2 lb) for 500 L (132 gal) – is it fixed? It is okay to put in more potatoes Our thinking here is that we want to cultivate microbes that are tough, meaning, that have survived on little food It is just like humans. If you lived plentiful life, your survival power might be reduced So we want to grow tough and strong microbes If you are growing strawberries, in addition to potatoes, blend 1 kg (2.2 lb) of strawberries and hang it with potatoes in 500 L (132 gal) If you grow bell peppers, blend and feed bell peppers. Same goes for all other crops. This is customized microge culturing. Strawberry-liking microbes will propagate and that helps strawberry farming This is same as “selective medium method” used in labs Potato is the basic food but the crop you grow becomes additional food; as a result you have customized JMS We will begin. Remember what it looks like in the beginning This is the non-heated one This is heated cultivation at 22ºC (72ºF) We attached a thermometer to read the temperature These thermometers are not accurate; there is a 1 degree discrepancy 3 hours passed on the non-heated one; there are no changes Water is about 17-18ºC (63-64ºF) 3 hours passed; water is heated to above 20ºC (68ºF) Heater has been set at 25ºC (77ºF) Heated water is at 21ºC (70ºF) 3 hours passed 13 hours passed since starting cultivation This is non-heated barrel We are looking for bubbles – but there is no change yet Room temperature is about 20ºC (68ºF) Non-heated water is about 18ºC (64.4ºF) This is heated cultivation – there are small signs of bubbles But the microbial activity is nowhere near active yet Heated water is 20ºC (68ºF) Room temperature is about 19-20ºC (66-68ºF) 36 hours have passed Take note that results in winter are different from summer In summer high-temperature loving microbes are larger and produce larger bubbles Foam is much more vigorous But cold-liking microbes are much smaller and produce smaller bubbles – like so Foam is also weaker If bubbles tend to gather toward the center of the surface away from the wall you know that microbial propagation is ongoing It’s because microbes, as they propagate, generate a water current So water rises along the wall and goes down at the center Foam will become stronger as time passes; we’ll film that Let’s look at the heated and insulated one. Heater was set at 25ºC (77ºF) Excuse me because while moving this barrel the disc-shaped foam somewhat got broken There are more bubbles here than the non-heated one The bubbles also tend to move away from the wall That indicates that the microbes are growing normally This is non-heated one after 40 hours at room temperature of 19-20ºC (66-68ºF) Compared to before, foams are becoming more obvious This is heated barrel after 40 hours Water in heated barrel is 23ºC (73.4ºF) This is non-heated barrel after 46 hours The edge of the foam disc is clearer now This is heated barrel after 46 hours Because it is warmer, it has more bubbles Heated water now stands at 26ºC (79ºF) and non-heated is 19ºC (66ºF) Now 48 hours, or two days have passed When cold, bubbles are much smaller because the cold-loving microbes are smaller 60 hours, or two days and half have passed This is non-heated barrel. You can see the edge of the disc is quite clear Cultivation is almost finished Again, hot-loving microbes are larger than cold-loving ones so microbe cultivation will look very different in summer and winter So in summer, you almost have a “pizza” of bubbles on the surface But in winter, microbes are smaller thus bubbles are tiny like so So remember that foam will look different in different temperatures When using it, dilute it with 10 parts water 500 L (132 gal) of JMS can be applied to approx 4 acres 60 hours passed with water heated to around 23ºC (73.4ºF) Because it’s warmer there are more foams See the circle-shaped arrangement of foam? If water is hotter, microbes will be more active and there will be more foam But I recommend you maintain water at around 20-25ºC (68-77ºF), because if you cultivate microbes at too warm a temperature, the microbes you get are no longer suitable for use in winter; they can only thrive in hot condition Although the bubbles might be small, you want to cultivate cold-resistant micrboes 60 hours passed; you can drain and use it at this stage We have demonstrated two methods of making JMS – heated and non-heated at a temperature condition of around 18ºC (64.4ºF) 64 hours, or about 3 days have passed, and they are almost completed See the disc in the middle? To maintain that shape, there needs to be a water current Water rising along the wall and sinking in the middle is what generates that circle shape of foam So use it while the circle is unbroken; dilute it 10 times This shape will be maintained for about 24 hours more, then will crumble Many people use molasses when cultivating microbes, but if you do that, your solution will become highly acidic pH will be about 3.5 to 4 Jadam is against the use of sugar or molasses because they produce acid solutions If your soil is pH6.5, the microbes that grew in pH6.5 would be most suitable If you use molasses, you are culturing acid-loving microbes They do not do much good for the soil Jadam’s method of using potatoes and sea salt produces a neutral solution Let’s test with a litmus indicator See that the result falls in roughly pH 7? So this potato-method is easy, low-cost and most suitable for your soil Again, do not use molasses or sugar, it will make the solution acid You determine the temperature based on the cold temperature of the night So when it drops below 18ºC (64.4ºF), we recommend artificial heating in making JMS This one here has been cultured at around 19ºC (66.2ºF) Remember that these electric heaters in many cases are not precise We had set it at 30ºC (86ºF) but you can see that the water is only about 24ºC (75.2ºF) So watch out for that; adjust the setting on the heater so that you achieve the desired temperature of the water If you set it too high, you will get results fast, however, the microbes you have cultivated will be heat-loving which makes them not the best choice for use in cooler periods like late autumn, winter or early spring So set the temperature not too high and cultivate mid- to low-temperature loving microbes See how the heated one produces larger bubbles? They propagate faster here It is ready for use However, winter and summer JMS will not look the same, but do not worry Let me measure the pH with a litmus paper pH is around 7 Many member-farmers had confusion because summer and winter JMS would look so different We wanted to clearly show you the difference by filming winter cultivatoin We will let the process keep going to see how the circle of foam breaks When the disc of foam starts to crumble, that is when the microbial propagation has come to a halt So drain and use up while the disc is clear; once it breaks, use it as liquid fertilizer diluted 10 times We normally apply JMS to soil, but we can also apply on the leaves If you spray JMS on your plants, the plant will be covered by diverse microorganisms from head to toe The existence of diverse microbes on the plant prevents diseases like powdery mildew, fungus, etc. Why is that so? For disease to prevail, the pathogen needs to secure its food But if there is a whole variety of microbes taking up the space (food) on the plant, pathogens cannot become dominant Exclusive taking of food by pathogens becomes impossible If you think of it, all those commercial microbial inputs for sale that claim to be effective against disease are in fact based on the same principle of diversity suppressing take-over by a pathogen It is not that the microbe in the product is very special When diversity measure through JMS failed, then Jadam has another powerful remedy Jadam uses Jadam sulfur to disinfect – kill the pathogen This is JMS “pesticide” in our recipes; we recommend using JMS to prevent diseases and pests Use this regularly We tried to convince member-farmers that this is very effective but not many seem to practice it They cannot imagine microbes functioning as germ-control And also because Jerusalem artichoke is added, it has pest-control property as well So that recipe is a very important preventative measure against pest and diseases So we made a sample according to the recipe For making 500 L (132 gal) of JNP, mix 3 L (0.8 gal) of JWA, 20 L (5.3 gal) of JMS, 10 L (2.64 gal) of JHS Now, a foam test – see that the foam is vigorous This solution will be very good at coating and wetting the plant Use it for foliar application, it will very evenly coat the plant and be excellent for pest/disease prevention What happens if you put in more JMS into the pesticide mix (JNP)? My recommendation was 20 L (5.3 gal) for 500 L (132 gal) Jadam’s wetting agent is biodegradable, meaning it is easily broken down by microbes If you put in JMS exceeding the recommended level, they will immediately disable JWA So the bubbles will suddenly vanish, and your JNP will no longer be coating the plant evenly What if you stuck to our recommended JMS dosage, but still don’t have good foam? Then most probably the reason is water not being soft I had stressed earlier that for foliar application (unlike soil application), you have to cultivate JMS in soft water If hard water was used in cultivating JMS, when mixed with JWA, foams will be gone If you will use JMS for foliar application, always use soft water When JMS is outdated, you turn them into JLF (liquid fertilizer) All Jadam liquid fertilizers can be used as foliar applicant But if you use this JLF-turned-JMS, be careful of the problem I just mentioned that they can consume the JWA and render wetting agent powerless Again, this JMS is a powerful disease prevention method Diversity comes before disinfection 3 days have passed See how the boundary is becoming blurry The edge used to be sharp when microbial propagation was active; blurring indicates a significant slow-down Microbial growth has entered a stage of die-down Observe the edges to judge when to use the JMS So compared to now, about 6-7 hours earlier was better stage for use We recommend using JMS for both soil and leaves For foliar application, you must use soft water For soil irrigation, mix JMS into water in over 10 times dilution You can do it undiluted in some cases, for example, before rain in open fields But over 10 times dilution is the standard, especially when applying in greenhouse Undiluted JMS is so strong that it can actually hinder plant growth Once the JMS enters the soil, it immediately solubilizes nutrient materials that pre-exitsted That is too much nutrient suddenly available for plants that they can be shocked So if you introduce JMS in the middle of crop growth, be careful about dilution So Jadam standard is to start using JMS before planting and continue using throughout I always say that microbes are like fish; it is not enough to just spray them on the soil Microbes have to travel deep into the soil with the flow of water JMS has to reach deep into the soil at least as deep as the roots reach So water abundantly so that microbes follow the water deep into the soil For open fields, you can apply undiluted JMS before rain For greenhouses, apply JMS mixed with plenty of water to fully drench the soil When applying JMS, for better results, mix in JLF, sea salt, and phyllite powder solution So the most important technique in Jadam is to apply JMS + JLF + sea salt + phyllite solution when the field is EMPTY (after harvest) Doing it before transplanting, sowing or flowering (trees), will really invigorate growth afterwards Success in early root settlement is direct key to high quality and high yield That concludes my presentation of JMS cultivation in cold weather Sponsor us!