Hi Welcome to the Grower Pesticide
Safety Course. This is Chapter 5, Pesticide Formulations. Chapter 5 starts
on page 63 the manual. There are 10 slides in the presentation and it will
take us about 10 minutes to review it together. What will I learn? By the end of
this lesson you should be able to, list the advantages and disadvantages of
different formulations or at least know where to look that up, define active
ingredient, define inert ingredient, recognize common abbreviations for
formulations, define adjuvant, tank mix pesticides properly and legally. So first,
what is a formulation? A formulation is a mixture of chemicals and formulants.
There’s three main types: solids, liquids and gases. A formulation contains active
ingredients — one or more chemicals that control the pest, inert ingredients — that would be other chemicals that maintain the active ingredient. Examples, you could have a talc or
an oil. Some inert ingredients may also be toxic and may affect the
overall toxicity of the product. Common abbreviations for formulations. Sometimes
you’ll see a short form. In this case we have Control All 500 EC. EC is the short form
for emulsifiable concentrate. You should find emulsifiable
concentrate on the pesticide label front panel as well, but sometimes it will only
be the short form. So knowing that will give you the clue and you can read
further into the label to make sure you know what is the abbreviation. Summary of
Formulation Types. We have a chart in the manual, and this is listed first by
solids, then liquids, then gases and organisms. And it will provide a brief
description of what that formulation is may be some advantages
and disadvantages for using that product from a safety perspective and then a
list of typical places where a formulation of that type would be used. Choosing A Formulation. So there might be
some questions you want to ask and think about. You’ve got a situation of a pest
control situation that you want to manage this pest. So when is the pest
most easily controlled, and will that make a difference on the formulation
that you might purchase? Could the crop be injured at any of its growth stages
and are there formulations that would be maybe safer to the crop at a certain
stage? What equipment will you need? So we have some herbicides that may be prone
to drift and that would cause herbicide damage on other crops, so you’d want to
think about is this formulation one that may drift and then should I have to
buy new nozzles, maybe coarse, very coarse or ultra coarse nozzles to reduce
the drift when I use this type of formulation or is there a better
formulation that I could use? What are the health risks when you use a
certain formulation? So if you use something like a water soluble packaging
you may have less requirements for protective clothing and equipment when
you’re mixing and loading that product because the soluble packages themselves
dissolve when placed in the spray tank. So there are health risks that you can
consider when choosing your formulation. And what are the optimum weather
conditions for the time of application? So we can have various times when
temperatures might be too hot, it might be too hot to apply. So optimum
temperature for a formulation might be between 10 and 20 degrees Celsius and
when the temperatures get to be 30 degrees Celsius that may be not good for
the use of that formulation on the crop and you may end up with some
crop injury if you’re using it at a really hot temperature. So some of those
things you can consider when you’re you’re in in the mode of considering
formulations for application to your crop. So pesticides can have the same
trade name but be sold in different products different formulations. So an
example I have here. This is a herbicide Devrinol. It comes in 10 G
probably 10% granule is what the 10 G would represent. Devrinol 2G, Devrinol
DF – DF being the short form you usually use for dry flowable. So you have a
choice of that product right there with three different formulations. Also there
could be different active ingredients involved with a different pesticide
product formulation. So for example here’s the herbicide Callisto. And then
we have Callisto with a GT following it. And this GT has an extra active
ingredient — glyphosate is in that product. So you have to be careful there. Just
don’t go out to buy Callisto without knowing exactly what you’re buying. Look
at the active ingredient, the guarantee on that pesticide label. Each formulation
has its own registration number. So in this case, we have Control All 500 EC and
Control All 480 SC. Two different formulations, same Control All as the trade
name. So make sure that you know when you may respond to an emergency that it’s
not just Control All but you need the complete name and more and better yet
would be to have the registration number. If someone has an accident give the
correct registration number to the medical staff. Adjuvants — we should discuss
adjuvants. What is an adjuvant? An adjuvant if any substance added to the product to
make it more effective. It could be added to a spray tank or included in the
formulation. So examples of adjuvants: wetting agents, spreaders, stickers, drift retardants, thickeners, anti-foaming agents, buffers.
These are all extra things you add to a spray tank over and above the pesticide
product so they are all termed collectively as adjuvants. And when should
you use an adjuvant? The label will tell you if you should use an adjuvant, and
then which adjuvants to use and how much to use. Read the pesticide label. If
you use an adjuvant without a label direction the adjuvant may have no
effect and may be an unnecessary expense. It may reduce how effective the product
is against the pest or actually injure the crop. So be careful when you’re
adding an adjuvant and certainly add them if the label tells you to. Tank
mixes. We’re going out in the field with one pass. We want to add the green
product and the blue product together and we’re going to save some time. Now are
there label directions for the tank mix? No label directions for the tank mix
then the tank mix might not work. It could result in gelling or curdling in
the tank. It could be more toxic to the crop. It
could be more toxic to the applicator. It could reduce pest control — an
antagonistic reaction. It could leave unacceptable pesticide residues on the
crop. So before mixing make sure that you know they will work well together. If you
mix products that do not have label directions on one of those product
labels, you are responsible for what happens with that tank mix. And that’s
a little summary of the Pesticide Formulations chapter.