Hi! Curious and inquisitive of Science. Today we will make a momentous question
How did life begin? And it seems, that makes four billion
years ago, something began to stir in the broth … primeval primordial soup of life … There are some simple chemicals
joined and made biology: appearing the first molecules capable of replication. And we humans, are bound
by the evolution of these first molecules biological. The concept of primordial soup is due to the
Russian biochemist Alexander Oparin, who 1924 heterotrophic postulated hypothesis
of the origin of life on Earth, which It is due to the gradual chemical evolution
from the carbon – based molecules, abiotically all. In the field
of biology and ecology, the term Abiotic designates what is not biotic,
ie that is not , or is no product of living beings. But this primordial soup, no longer
a metaphor used to illustrate a hypothesis, about the origin of life on our planet.
The experiment is based primarily on play in an airtight, the conditions
that occurred in the earth for millions of years along with the primeval soup, ie
the elements in the proportions in which They are then found. The liquid, rich in organic compounds
include carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen I mostly, exposed to ultraviolet rays
and electrical energy. The hypothesis of origin heterotrophic life holds, in
the primordial soup, were synthesized, abiotically, organic molecules necessary to
keep the first life. Almost 30 years later, the hypothesis of
Oparin, exactly in 1953, Stalley Miller, an American scientist and ornithologist,
known for his studies on the origin life and birds, made a famous
experiment called Miller’s experiment and Urey. In it, he made a simulation
based on the hypothesis created by Oparin, the primitive Earth conditions,
in search of chemical reactions, They could build their first essential blocks
simple. Both amino acids and proteins. Well, well over half a century later,
that Miller proposed his theory “primordial soup” still can not be
agreed, what really happened. Some say life began in pools
hot near volcanoes, others It was initiated by meteorites that hit
the sea. But … what is clear is that, to date
today, life has conquered every centimeter Square Earth, but when it formed
the planet this was just a dead rock. So … How did life begin? How
the basic chemical elements present on Earth primitive, spontaneously they organized themselves
into something like life? Are you sure no It was God who created life? And, there can hardly be a question
bigger. And you see that today I bring you a video super
interesting. And nothing, if you want to be aware of all the
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we always see that the known is finite and the unknown infinite … Well, you want to know more? Well , let’s
look around . INTRO For much of human history,
almost everyone believed that some version “Life was made by the gods.” And it is that …
any other explanation was inconceivable. But that today is no longer true. As I have been explaining, during the century
past, some scientists have tried could have arisen discover how the first
life. … and they have even tried to recreate this time
of Genesis in their laboratories: create a life, completely new from scratch. So far none have succeeded, but we’ve
come a long way. Today, many scientists studying
the origin of life, confident they are on the right track, and work in experiments
to support their confidence. This is the story of our quest for
our discover ultimate origin. It is a story obsession, struggle and brilliant creativity,
encompassing some of the greatest discoveries modern science. But go to parties … What is clear
is that life is old. Dinosaurs are perhaps the most famous extinct creatures,
animals that had their beginnings ago 250 million years. But life goes back
much further back. The oldest fossils known, have about 3,500 million
years, 14 times the age of the dinosaurs oldest. But beware, the fossil record can be extended
further. For example, in August 2016, the researchers found what appear to
be fossilized microbes dating from 3700 millions of years. And the Earth itself is not much older,
was formed 4,500 million years ago. If we assume that life formed on Earth,
which seems reasonable, since it has not we have found anywhere else,
then you should have done in the billions of years between the creation
of the Earth and the preservation of fossils, oldest we know. Well, besides reducing when it began
life, we can make an assumption what it was at that time. Since the nineteenth century, biologists have known
that all living things are made of “cells”. It ie small pockets of
living matter, which come in different forms and sizes. The cells were first discovered
in the seventeenth century, when they were invented early modern microscopes, but anyone,
it took over a century to realize which they were the basis of all life. So … using only the materials and conditions
found on Earth, more than 3,500 millions of years, we have to make a
cell. So easy or so complicated … And, you may think you do not
look a lot like a catfish or a Tyrannosaurus rex, but watched its cells under a microscope,
you would see that everyone, absolutely everyone, we are made of very similar types of cells.
And eye, which are also similar to those plants and fungi. And far more numerous forms of life
are microorganisms, each of which It is formed by a single cell. Of these, bacteria are the group
famous, and are found everywhere the earth. In April 2016, scientists presented
an updated version of the “tree of life “: a kind of family tree
. for each living species and almost all branches They are bacteria. In addition, the shape of the tree
suggests that a bacterium was the ancestor common life. In other words, all living things,
including you, ultimately descend of a bacterium. And this means we can
define the problem of the origin of life more precisely. Well, first let’s make history as
I like … Throughout most of history, it not
considered really need to ask how life began, because the answer
seemed obvious. Before 1800, most people believed in the “vitalism”. This is the intuitive idea that the beings
living were equipped with a magical property special, which was different from
inanimate objects. And of course, vitalism, He was often linked to religious beliefs.
For example, the Bible says that God used “breath of life” to encourage early
humans, and the immortal soul is a form of vitalism. There is only one problem. Vitalism
is just wrong. In the early 1800s, scientists had
discovered several substances, which seemed be unique to life. One of these was
the urea, found in urine and It was isolated in 1799. But … it still was compatible with
vitalism. Since only living things seemed capable of producing these chemicals, so
that perhaps were infused vital energy and that was what made them special. But … in 1828, the German chemist Friedrich
Wohler, found a way to produce urea, from an inorganic compound
common call ammonium cyanate, and not It had an obvious connection with living things. So, others followed suit, and soon it
became clear that all chemicals of life, they can be made from products
simpler chemicals, which have nothing to do with life. And boooooom …. This was the end of vitalism
as a scientific concept. But beware, people found it profoundly
difficult, put aside the idea. For many, say that there is nothing “special” in products
chemicals of life, seemed to rob life of your magic, reducing us to mere
machines. And, of course, he contradicted the Bible. So, the mystery of the origin
of life was ignored for decades. And it is that even among scientists,
has struggled to get rid of vitalism. Think curious that already in 1913, biochemist
English Benjamin Moore, was promoting fervently a theory of “energy
Biotic” which was essentially vitalism under a different name. But let ‘s … pure
science fiction … And there are many stories of science fiction,
in which “life energy” of a person, It can be enhanced or drained. For example
in the famous “Doctor Who” series. There, the term regeneration, is a skill
biological Messrs of the time, one race of humanoids from the planet
Gallifrey. This process allows a Lord of old time, terminally ill or wounded
mortally, enter a transformation, by which all cells replace
diseased your body by healthy cells, regaining health and acquiring so, the
have the new cells also DNA altered, a new physical form and the change
also brain cells, a personality something different. But let ‘s science fiction …
And although this may seem futuristic, is an idea deeply unfashionable. What if it was revolutionary, it was the
great biological progress of the nineteenth century. The theory of evolution developed by Charles
Darwin and others. Here I leave a video I talk about it. Darwin’s theory exposed in The Origin
of Species in 1859, explained how great diversity of life could have
arisen from a single common ancestor. Instead that each of the different species
were created individually by God, all They descended from a primordial organism that
lived millions of years ago: the last universal common ancestor. This idea proved immensely controversial,
again because it contradicted the Bible. Therefore, Darwin and his ideas were attacked
fiercely, particularly Christians outraged. But … The theory of evolution did not say
anything about how the first organism was born. Darwin knew it was a deep question,
but perhaps wary of starting another fight with the Church, only it seems to have discussed
the issue in a letter written in 1871. It said … “But if we could conceive
in a small, warm pond, yet type of ammonia and phosphoric salts, light,
heat, electricity, etc., a compound protein was chemically formed ready
to undergo still more complex changes … ” In other words, what would happen if there was
once a small body of water, packed of simple organic compounds and bathed
in sunlight? Some of these compounds, They may combine to form a substance
realistic, as a protein, which then could begin to evolve and become more complex.
It was an incomplete idea. But it would become, on the basis of the first hypothesis of how
life began. I like the beginning of the video, was said Alexander
Oparin, who carried out this research. In 1924, Oparin published his book The Origin
of Life. In it, I outlined a vision for the birth of life, which was surprisingly
similar to the warm little pond Darwin. Oparin imagined what was the young Earth.
The surface was fiery hot, since the space rocks fell on
it and hit. It was a landscape of rocks semi-molten, containing a variety
of chemicals, including many based carbon. Finally, the Earth is
sufficiently cooled, so that the steam water is condensed into liquid water, and
the first rain fell. Before long, the Earth had oceans, which were hot
and rich in chemicals based on carbon. And then, two things can happen. First, various chemicals
may react with each other to form many new compounds, some of which
would be more complex. Oparin assumed that central life molecules as
sugars and amino acids, could It has formed in the waters of the Earth. Second, some of the chemicals
began to form microscopic structures. Many organic chemicals not
dissolve in water: for example, oil forms a layer on the water. But when
some of these chemicals come in contact with water, are spherical globules called
“coacervates” which can measure up to 0.01 cm wide. Coacervates If you look under
a microscope behave in a way quite disturbing. And it seems cells
alive. As they grow and change shape, and sometimes they split in two. In addition,
also they can absorb chemicals of the surrounding water, so that products
chemical real, can concentrate in from them. Oparin proposed that coacervates,
were the ancestors of modern cells. Five years later, in 1929, biologist
English JBS Haldane proposed independently some very similar ideas in a short article
published in the Rationalist Annual. Haldane had already made enormous contributions
to the theory of evolution, helping integrate the ideas of Darwin, science
emerging of genetics. And the like Oparin, Haldane described
how organic chemicals could accumulate in water, “[to] the primitive oceans
reached the consistency of a dilute soup hot “. This set the stage for
they formed” the first living things or half alive “, and that each stay
locked in” an oily film. ” Of course, the idea that organisms
living were formed by means purely chemicals, without a god or even a “force
vital”, was too radical for the time … And the same as the theory of evolution
of Darwin, Christianity crushed him. Even if, that if the theory was well suited to the USSR.
Since the Soviet regime was officially atheist, and its leaders were eager to
support materialist explanations of phenomena deep as life. Oparin and Haldane And
were Communists, supported him … And so, the idea that life is
formed in a primordial soup products organic chemical, is known as the
hypothesis Oparin-Haldane. It was a hypothesis orderly and convincing, but there was a problem.
A serious problem … There was no experimental evidence to back it up … And this does not come until
many years later … And it was then, when the chemist Harold
Urey became interested in the origin of life, and did pretty after winning
the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 and later also to help build the atomic bomb
in the Manhattan Project during the Second World War. But that if … after
the war, fought to keep technology nuclear under civilian control. Well, one day, Urey gave a lecture
and said that probably there was no oxygen in the Earth ‘s atmosphere when formed
first. And this would have offered ideal conditions, so that they formed
the primordial soup of Oparin and Haldane. Already that chemicals fragile, have
been destroyed by contact with oxygen. At the end, a doctoral student named
Stanley Miller Urey approached with a proposal: Could we try this idea? Urey was
skeptical, but Miller convinced him. Then, in 1952, Miller began the experiment
most famous of the origin of life ever I tried. Starting from the hypothesis of Alexander Oparin
and John Haldane, which was established the early atmosphere was composed
of ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane, water and hydrogen recreated conditions
of the Earth in its early stages, for Search chemical reactions that emerged
spontaneously, leading to the first essential chemical elements, ie,
amino acids and proteins. For this purpose, they devised a tube in which
a mixture of these gases was, and added a bowl of water to mimic the ocean
shirt. Also they included electrodes in the
chamber containing gases, and they did to produce electrical discharges
similar, which provoked rays of large storms that formed in
the ancient Earth. It was a spark 60,000 volts, which is kept continually
mixed with the gases and water. A week passed when Miller discovered
the following facts: First, they were consumed almost all the methane
and ammonia. Second, they were mainly two gases were nitrogen monoxide and
carbon. And third, there had a deposit of a dark – colored material
in the water. So let elapse one week
more and then we could know the compounds which they had been generated from the analysis
of water and matter that she had accumulated. These were organic molecules:
amino acids such as alanine, glycine, acid aspartic and glutamic, and also found
glucose and acetic acid. all components used by cells for synthesizing
proteins. Tremendous… And it is that amino acids, often described
as the basic components of life. These are used to form proteins,
which control most processes biochemicals in our bodies. So, surprisingly, Miller had
created from scratch, two of the components most important of life. And the results
were published in the prestigious journal Science in 1953. Urey, in an act disinterested and unusual among
scientists senior, gave the merit Miller only. … But despite this,
the studio is often referred to as the “experiment Miller-Urey. According to John Sutherland he said of the Laboratory
of Molecular Biology in Cambridge in UK, “The Miller-Urey force was to
show that you can spend an atmosphere Simple to produce many biological molecules.
But beware, the details of the experiment were be wrong, as later studies
showed that the atmosphere of the Earth primitive had a different gas mixture. But according to Sutherland that’s almost irrelevant.
Since that was hugely iconic, and which stimulated the imagination of the public
and remains a widely Day today aforementioned. Think curious, that following the experiment
of Miller, other scientists began find ways to make biological molecules
simple from scratch. So, a solution to the mystery of the origin of life it seemed
close. But nothing is further from reality, then it
became clear that life was more complicated than anyone had thought. And it turned out
that living cells were not only bags chemical products: small machines were
intricate. And so … Several hypotheses have been proposed,
all competing for the last decades and today the field is highly polarized. Think curious that scientists do not
agree on what chemicals of life they came first, either, about
which of the processes of life came first and so if you want or agree
where life arose on Earth. AND even the time of the origin of life is
concerned. But … that, and exactly that’s the beauty
of science … All he seems to agree
the researchers, is that the beginning of the Life happened after the formation of
Earth 4,500 million years ago, and before 3,400 million years ago, the
age of the oldest fossils confirmed. But beware, many paleontologists have tried
to reduce this window, identifying traces older life, but these findings
are still in dispute, including 3.700 million years which I spoke earlier. As for the location, where in began
life, many still believe it was in the sea, but not necessarily in the open sea:
a vocal minority of researchers, create that life began in alkaline vents
on the seabed. While others think, that life began in earthen ponds,
perhaps as geothermal pools Yellowstone. But hey, they have been proposed many other
places, like ice. On the other hand, a minority of scientists
argue that life may have begun, elsewhere in the universe and they have come
via meteorites to Earth, a familiar idea como “panspermia”. However, most researchers
think this does not work with the call “Ockham ‘s razor” or law of parsimony,
especially because they have been found extraterrestrial life. Who does not know, Ockham’s razor,
is a philosophical principle, which seeks to simplify the process and point the logic resides
in choosing the simplest approach, versus … always more complicated stance
clear that more sencillla posture, is on an equal basis with others.
Thus, a simple theory, but with little evidence, It should not be chosen rather than a more
complex but backed by sufficient evidence. But hey, keep in mind that this
theory is irrefutable and not far It serves to determine the correct explanations
of scientific phenomena. Anyway … that part of the location, probably
thornier question, whether the mechanism by which life began. Which of the many it processes taking
place in living organisms came first? One of the first ideas, popularized by
biochemist Sidney Fox, following the experiment Miller-Urey was that amino acids are assembled
into simple proteins. In modern organisms, proteins perform a range of
functions including acting as enzymes, that speed up chemical reactions essential.
However, this hypothesis that they were first proteins has fallen to a large
extent disgrace. Currently, a much more popular notion
is that life began with RNA, a cousin closest to the DNA. RNA, marking acid
ribonucleic is a nucleic acid, involved in the synthesis of proteins and performs
the function of messenger information genetics. Thus RNA can carry genes and copied
as DNA, but also folds and act as an enzyme, as a protein. The idea is … that organisms based solely
on RNA arose first, and only later developed DNA and proteins. And yes, the RNA world, has accumulated a large
amount of evidence supporting the theory, but it is not clear that RNA alone was
sufficient. In recent years, some researchers
have suggested that RNA only reaches its potential, when combined with proteins,
and that both must have existed at the beginning of the life. On the other hand, part of the protein first,
or RNA first, a third school of thought It proposes that the first organisms were
simple bubbles. And these “protoceldas” they would like modern cells
in a key attribute: they acted as containers for all other components of life.
It ie small bubbles filled gas trapped and reacted
with the surfaces of the pores in rocks volcanic, they could have accelerated the formation
of chemical networks, which eventually gave place the first cells. And the final hypothesis is that life began
with a series of chemical reactions that extracted energy environment and
used to build molecules lifetime. This idea that “the first thing was the metabolism”
was defended in the late 1980s by Günter Wächtershäuser, a chemist
German patent attorney become. With his article entitled, light and life:
the origins in nutrition sensory perception, establishes his theory,
strongly influenced by the philosophy of Popper, called biochemical retrodiction.
But then she met Carl Woese, who made him see the inconsistencies of the
concept of primordial soup. In 1990, in an article finally it conceived the
theory of the first autocatalytic cycles and autotrophic and in 1997, it performs a series
of experiments, with Claudia Huber, whose results published in Science, therein,
generate get peptides from amino acids, laboratory conditions similar to
those of submarine hydrothermal vents, using sulfides of iron and nickel, more
traces of selenium as catalyst, suggesting thermophilic origin of life. This work
marks the beginning of the theory of the world iron sulfide. However, today, this idea has been
supplanted, by the suggestion of Michael Russell, that the first life was driven by
proton currents electrically charged, alkaline vents within the bed
ocean. As onlookers see … we can not know with
certainty how life developed on our planet… And this question, remains one of
the most profound science, and day Today, although there are many theories,
scientists still can not agree on a response. It remains a matter of debate, and to understand
the origin of life, help us understand better our place in the universe, and
also help us in our search extraterrestrial life. In short, the first idea, that of the broth
primeval, was proposed a century ago by two researchers working independently.
Oparin and Haldane the above. 30 years later, he was supported by Miller and his
famous experiment with Urey. An experiment which showed that the chemical life,
could be formed naturally. And here the argument that God created life from
scratch faded … But … shortly afterwards saw that create that
life from scratch, it was much more complicated what he suggested Miller’s experiment. And as you can see … so we are now. How have you been curious and inquisitive? What do you think of this video? You can
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