HAWAIʻI GROWS ONLY 10 TO 13% OF THE
FOOD CONSUMED IN THE ISLANDS. THE REST IS IMPORTED.
NUMEROUS INITIATIVES WANT TO CHANGE THAT RATIO BUT HOW?
A NEW STUDY SUGGESTS THAT HAWAIʻI CONSIDER THE SUCCESS OF
NATIVE HAWAIIAN PRACTICES OF THE PAST BY APPLYING
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND PRINCIPLES TO TODAY’S WORLD.
ESPECIALLY WITH INCREASED THREATS OF CLIMATE CHANGE. JOIN THE DISCUSSION ON
INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE TONIGHT’S LIVE BROADCAST AND LIVESTREAM OF INSIGHTS ON PBS HAWAIʻI START NOW.
¶¶ [INTRO MUSIC]>>Lara: ALOHA AND WELCOME TO
INSIGHTS ON PBS HAWAIʻI. I’M LARA YAMADA.
BEFORE WESTERN CONTACT, HAWAIIANS WERE
SELF-SUFFICIENT, PRODUCING ENOUGH FOOD TO NOT ONLY
SURVIVE, BUT THRIVE. RESEARCHERS ESTIMATE THAT THE
INDIGENOUS POPULATION PRODUCED MORE THAN ONE MILLION TONS OF
FOOD, WHICH COULD FEED MOST ISLAND RESIDENTS TODAY.
GOVERNOR IGE WANTS HAWAIʻI TO DOUBLE ITS CURRENT FOOD OUTPUT
BY 2020, WHICH IS FAST APPROACHING.
AS WE SEARCH FOR WAYS TO ACHIEVE THAT GOAL ARE WE
OVERLOOKING AN OPTION FROM THE PAST?
OUR GUESTS TONIGHT INCLUDE EXPERTS IN INDIGENOUS AND
SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION. WE LOOK FORWARD TO YOUR
PARTICIPATION IN TONIGHT’S SHOW. YOU CAN EMAIL, CALL OR
TWEET YOUR QUESTIONS. AND YOU’LL FIND A LIVE STREAM OF
THIS PROGRAM AT PBSHAWAII.ORG AND THE PBS HAWAIʻI FACEBOOK
PAGE. 2 NOW, TO OUR GUESTS.
NATALIE KURASHIMA IS AN INTEGRATED RESOURCES MANAGER
FOR KAMEHAMEHA SCHOOLS. SHE SUPPORTS COMMUNITY-BASED
STEWARDSHIP OF NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES.
ALBIE MILES IS AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SUSTAINABLE
COMMUNITY FOOD SYSTEMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI’I, WEST
O’AHU. KAMUELA ENOS IS THE SOCIAL
ENTERPRISE DIRECTOR FOR MA’O ORGANIC FARMS. HE IS ALSO A
LECTURER AT UH MANOA’S DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND
REGIONAL PLANNING. AND NOA LINCOLN IS AN
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR FOR INDIGENOUS CROPPING SYSTEMS AT
THE COLLEGE OF TROPICAL AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN
RESOURCES AT THE UH MANOA. MAHALO TO YOU FOR JOINING US
THANK YOU SO MUCH ALL OF YOU FOR BEING HERE.
INTERESTING TOPIC. BEEN ON PEOPLE’S MINDS FIRE
LONG TIME. GREAT TO DELVE DEEP FLOOR IT.
SOME AREAS THAT PEOPLE AREN’T QUITE AS FAMILIAR WITH.
ALL OF YOU ARE. TALKING ABOUT INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURE. MAYBE NATALIE, I’M GOING TO
ASK YOU FIRST. EXPLAIN TO PEOPLE WHO AREN’T
AS FAMILIAR WITH IT, WHAT YOU MEAN BY INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURE.>>SOME OF OUR RESEARCH,
LOOKED AT A COUPLE OF DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS.
LO’I PEOPLE MIGHT BE FAMILIAR WITH, DRY LAND FIELD SYSTEMS
AND AGRIFORESTRY SYSTEMS. THERE’S A HUGE VARIETY OF
CROPPING SYSTEMS THAT ARE 3 KUPUNA USED TO GROW FOOD IN
HAWAI’I. WHEN I TALK ABOUT THE
RESTORATION OF THESE SYSTEMS TODAY, WANT TO MAKE THE POINT
DYNAMIC AND UNCONTINUED NOW, CULTURE IS DYNAMIC.
PEOPLE ARE DYNAMIC AND SYSTEMS INDIGENOUS RESTORATION,
INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE RESTORATION TODAY IS BASED
UPON THE INDIGENOUS PRINCIPLES, VALUES, TO CREATE
SYSTEMS THAT ARE APPROPRIATE FOR TO DO’S SOCIAL AND
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT.>>Lara: DO YOU WANT TO JUMP
IN? WHAT DO YOU WANT PEOPLE TO
UNDERSTAND WHEN THEY THINK ABOUT INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE?
>>FOR ME, IDEA OF INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE SYSTEM IS KIND OF
UNDERSTANDING WHAT INDIGENOUS MEANS.
PROFESSOR IS MEYER. TALKIES ABOUT IT.
INDIGENOUS TO SOME PLACE. VERY SPECIFIC PLACE.
LAND. PRACTICES.
ALLOW PEOPLE TO LIVE IN INDEFINITELY.
TALK ABOUT CONTINUITY, DEEP RELATIONSHIPS WITH HOW THE
HAND ESCAPE WORKS, HOW PEOPLE WORK TOGETHER, AROUND THE
LANDSCAPE AND HOW THE SCIENCES THAT COME OUT OF A CLOSE TIES,
PRACTICALLY APPLIED TO PEOPLE. APPLY TO UNDERSTANDING PEOPLE
AROUND YOU. RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LAND.
KEY UNDERPENGUINS OF IT, JUST SAY, WELL, NOT REALLY ABOUT
RACE OR ETHNICITY IN SOME RESPECTS.
ABOUT A VALUE SYSTEM THAT UNDERSTANDS INTERCONNECTEDNESS
AND UNDERSTAND INTRINSIC 4 CARRYING CAPACITIES AND
UNDERSTAND THAT YOU SEE LANDSCAPE AS ENDOWMENT FUTURE
GENERATIONS HAVE THE RIGHT TO. IT’S NOT THIS EXTRACTING,
EXTRACTING, EXTRACTING FOR NOW, BUT BEQUEATHING SYSTEMS
THAT WORK FOR EACH GENERATION.>>SUSTAINABILITY.
THAT ISSUE. FEEDING THE POPULATION, HOW
WE’RE DOING IT, WHAT WAY, WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE, HOW
DOES THAT FIT INTO THE WORLD THAT YOU WORK IN?
>>INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE, I THINK, CAN SERVE AS IMPORTANT
MODELS BECAUSE THEY’VE ENDURED FOR SUCH A LONG PERIOD OF
TIME. THEIR REFERENCE
AGORAECOSYSTEMS THAT WE CAN STUDY AND DERIVE PRINCIPLES
FOR HOW WE WOULD MANAGE MODERN AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS IN THE
CURRENT ERA.>>Lara: FOR YOU?
YOU’RE LOOKING AT CROPS?>>I’VE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY
TOO LOOK AT INDIGENOUS AG, MANY PLACES IN THE WORLD,
SOUTH U.S., CENTRAL, SOUTH AMERICA, BRAZIL, NEW ZEALAND,
SAMOA, MARQUESAS. EXTREMELY PLACE ADAPTED.
DOESN’T COME WITH A PRECONCEIVED NOTION WHAT YOU
DO WITH THE LAND. DEVELOPED IN CONCERT WITH THE
ECOLOGY OF THE LANDS, NEEDS OF PEOPLE TO DEVELOP LONGLASTING
ENDURING, BEQUEATHED FORMS OF AGRICULTURE.
ESSENCE TO ME IS THAT ADAPTATION WITH PLACE AND WITH
ECOLOGY.>>Lara: HOW DOES
CONVERSATION? 5 BECAUSE I THINK PEOPLE HAVE
HEARD SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ESPECIALLY RECENT YEARS A LOT
MORE. THAT KIND OF RINGS IN THEIR
EARS A LITTLE MORE BECAUSE PEOPLE ARE TALKING ABOUT THAT,
USING THE TERM SUSTAINABILITY HERE IN THE ISLANDS.
MAKING AGRICULTURE AS WE’RE TALKING ABOUT EARLIER, MORE
PROMINENT INDUSTRY HERE, NOT JUST SO MUCH RELIANT ON
TOURISM. HOW DOES THAT DIFFER TO YOU?
WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, AS
OPPOSED TO, OR IN COMPARISON TO INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE?
>>I THINK THAT AS I MENTIONED, I THINK THAT THE
INDIGENOUS FARMING SYSTEMS OF HAWAI’I, BUT ALSO INDIGENOUS
FARMING SYSTEMS FROM AREAS ALL OVER THE WORLD, CAN SERVE AS
IMPORTANT MODELS. AND WE CAN INTEGRATE SOME OF
THE PRINCIPLES ECOLOGICALLY BASED MANAGEDMENT DERIVED FROM
THE ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND APPLIED THEM TO MODERN.
CONSUMERS ARE INTERESTED IN PURCHASING PRODUCTS GROWN IN
MORE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE WAY.
WHAT WE SEE IN THE EXPONENTIAL ANY GROWTH OF THE ORGANIC FOOD
INDUSTRY. STARTING TO SEE THE KIND OF
COMMERCIALIZATION OF PRACTICES THAT HAVE THEIR ORIGINS IN
INDIGENOUS FOOD AND FARMING.>>Lara: HOW DO YOU SEE AS
MAKING THIS TRANSITION? I THINK SOME PEOPLE LISTENING
AND I KNOW COME TO MIND FOR ME TOO, FEELS, HOW DO WE TAKE
THINKING ABOUT INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE AND THEN BRING IT
TO A BROADER SCALE? 6 WHERE ARE WE RIGHT NOW IN THAT
HAPPENING? IS THAT STILL, ARE WE STILL A
WAYS AWAY FROM REACHING THAT POINT?
>>FOR ME, THERE CAN BE A DISTINCTION BETWEEN INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE DOING
AGRICULTURE. THEY’RE BOTH IMPORTANT BECAUSE
ONE IS PROPAGATION, METHODOLOGY WITH PRACTICES BUT
VALUES. THE OTHER IS CONVERSATION
ABOUT EQUITY. GIVE OUR PEOPLE FOR THOUSANDS
OF YEARS, LIVE ACROSS ISLANDS AND LAND IN HAWAI’I.
HUNDREDS OF YEARS, HAD TIES TO PLACE.
SYSTEM THESE WERE DESIGNED FOR HAWAI’I, AHUPUAA SYSTEMS
REALLY DOING MANY THINGS AT ONCE.
IT WAS FOOD PRODUCTION, ALSO ALSO SOCIAL.
CARING FOR EACH OTHER, SOCIAL NETWORK AND ECONOMIC SYSTEM AS
SPIRITUAL SYSTEM. SERVING OF THAT WAS THE
BEGINNING OF POVERTY. BEGINNING OF ALL THE THINGS
LANDSCAPE BECAME DEGREDATED AND COMMUNITIES BECAME BROKEN.
RESTORATION OF THEM TOGETHER.>>Lara: DISCONNECT.
>>IDEA THAT YOU CAN HEAL PEOPLE WHO ARE ISLANDERS AND
YOU DO ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION WORK IN SILOS IS
FALSE RESTORATION TOGETHER IS CRITICAL.
TALK ABOUT LATE, MAO, ABLE TO PURCHASE LARGE PARCEL OF LAND
WITH PARTNERSHIP OF KAMEHAMEHA AND INDIGENOUS DOING
AGRICULTURE AND INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES DOING AGRICULTURE
AS INTENTIONAL PRACTICE. 7>>Lara: WOULD YOU SAY THIS
IS A NEWER, FOR LACK OF BETTER WAY OF PUTTING IT, NEWER
MOVEMENT TOWARD BETTER MORE EDUCATED MORE STRATEGIC FOCUS
ON BRINGING INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE INTO A BROADER
SCALE? HOW IS THIS PROGRESS HAPPENED
FOR YOU? WHERE DO YOU FEEL WE’RE AT AS
FAR AS COMING INTO PLAY ON A LARGER SCALE THESE KINDS OF
CONVERSATIONS WE’RE HAVING RIGHT NOW ARE REPRESENT OF
INTEREST IN FOOD SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION, NOT ONLY HERE
IN HAWAI’I, BUT ALL OVER THE WORLD.
STARTING TO SEE THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SYSTEM, PUBLIC
HEALTH, IN TERMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, AND
PEOPLE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE QUALITY OF THEIR FOOD, AND THE
NEGATIVE EXTERNAL TIES ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCING
FOOD. I THINK THAT BY VIRTUE OF THE
FACT WE SEE MORE AND MORE RESEARCHERS STUDYING
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, MORE AND MORE STUDENTS ARE
INTERESTED IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, I
THINK THAT THAT’S EXAMPLE OF HOW IT IS GROWING AND POPULAR
CULTURE AND AS I MENTIONED, DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD
PRODUCTS IS GROWING VERY RAPIDLY.
SO I THINK THERE IS A LOT OF PUBLIC INTEREST IN THIS TOPIC.
>>I WANTED TO SAY THAT I THINK OUR COMMUNITIES
GRASSROOTS LEVEL AND MANY COMMUNITIES AROUND THE WORLD,
HAVE BEEN DOING INDIGENOUS AND 8 SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE FOR
GENERATIONS. I THINK NOW, MAYBE POLICY
LEVEL, PEOPLE ARE RECOGNIZING IT.
BUT I DON’T WANT TO DISCREDIT THAT ALL THE WORK THAT’S BEEN
DONE AND I THINK A LOT OF THE RESEARCH AND PAPER THAT WE
WROTE WAS RECOGNIZING WHAT OUR COMMUNITIES HAVE KNOWN FOR A
LONG TIME. KUPUNA WERE SUSTAINABLE AND WE
CAN USE PRACTICES TO BE SUSTAINABLE TODAY.
>>Lara: TALK ABOUT YOUR STUDIES.
THANK YOU FOR THE TRANSITION. TALK ABOUT THE RESEARCH THAT
YOU’VE DONE. EXPLAIN TO PEOPLE WHAT IT WAS
ABOUT AND WHAT YOUR GOAL WAS.>>JUST LOOKING AT KNOWING
THAT IKE KUPUNA COULD CONTRIBUTE TO SUSTAINABILITY
ISSUES, I WAS INTERESTED UNDERSTANDING WHERE INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS EXIST IN HAWAI’I, WHAT WAS OUR
PRODUCTION, WHAT IS OUR POTENTIAL UNDER TODAY’S LAND
USE, AND IN TODAY’S FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGES, SO WHAT WE
DID WAS BROUGHT TOGETHER ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATIC
PERIMETERS CREATED MODEL TO CREATE MAPS WHERE THE SYSTEMS
COULD EXIST. WOULD EXIST.
WE MATCHED IT UP WITH ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORIC
EVIDENCE, PRETTY ACCURATE. COULD ESTIMATE PRODUCTION
LEVELS. THOSE ARE THE NUMBERS THAT YOU
SHARED WITH THE AUDIENCE, WE COULD HAVE BEEN PRODUCING OVER
A MILLION METRIC TONS PER YEAR.
SIMILAR TO WHAT WE’RE EATING 9 IN HAWAI’I TODAY.
POTENTIAL MAXIMUM THEORETICAL CAPACITY OVER 1.2 MILLION
KANAKA IWI AT THE TIME OF COOK’S ARRIVAL IN THE LATE
1700’S. THEN FROM THERE, WE TOOK THAT
MODEL AND OVERLAID DEVELOPMENT.
WE’RE ONE OF THE MOST URBANIZED PACIFIC ISLANDS IN
THE WORLD. DEVELOPMENT ONLY SLIGHTLY
REDUCED PRODUCTION. 12%.
MAJORITY OF LANDS ARE ZONED AGRICULTURAL TODAY.
WE COULD RESTORE THEM WITHOUT ZONING ISSUES.
IMPORTANT THING WE DID FIND WAS A LOT OF THE INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURAL LANDS THAT WERE IDENTIFIED WEREN’T NECESSARILY
CONSIDERED PRIME AGRICULTURAL LANDS BY TODAY’S STATE
STANDARDS. I THINK IT JUST SERVES TO
ILLUSTRATE THE FACT THAT CONTINENTAL AGRICULTURAL
SYSTEM AND LAND USE SYSTEM WAS PUT UPON OUR ISLANDS AND SO I
THINK THAT’S A HUGE SHIFT IN HOW WE WANT TO THINK ABOUT OUR
AG LANDS. THESE PLACES WE KNOW ARE
RESILIENT. WE KNOW COULD PRODUCE FOOD FOR
ALMOST A MILLENIA. WE NEED TO THINK ABOUT THEM AS
PRIME AG LANDS TODAY. LOOKED AT CLIMATE CHANGE.
HOW WOULD BE SYSTEMS PRODUCE, HOW WOULD THE PRODUCTION OF
THESE SYSTEMS CHANGE UNDER THE INCREASED TEMPERATURE AND
DECREASED PRECIPITATION WE KNOW IS COMING.
WE FOUND THAT, CREATED A MAP THAT SHOWED THESE AREAS THAT
ARE GOING TO BE REALLY 10 RESILIENT UNDER OF RANGE OF
CLIMATE SCENARIOS. POLICY MAKERS AND LANDOWNERS
CAN USE TO FOCUS RESTORATION TODAY.
>>Lara: DO YOU THINK THAT TYPE OF RESEARCH NEEDED TO
HAPPEN FOR US TO BE ABLE TO TRANSITION?
WHAT HAS HAPPENED WITH INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURAL AND
TRANSFER IT TO TODAY’S WORLD, TO HAWAI’I’S WORLD TODAY?
WAS THAT A NECESSARY PROJECT, NECESSARY RESEARCH?
>>I THINK FOR POLICYMAKERS, FOR ACADEMICS THEY WANT TO SEE
IT. COMMUNITIES A LOT OF PEOPLE DO
KNOW, KUPUNA WERE SUSTAINABLE. BUT THERE WERE A LOT OF FOOD
SELF-SUFFICIENCY STUDIES HAWAI’I COULD NEVER DO IT.
COULD NEVER PRODUCE ITS OWN FOOD.
THIS IS JUST ONE STEP TO EMPOWERING US TO KNOW THAT WE
CAN DO IT. WE DID DO IT AND WE CAN DO IT
TODAY.>>Lara: I THINK THAT’S, I’M
GOING TO ASK THE QUESTION. MINDSET I THINK AT THIS POINT
FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE IS, ALREADY SO URBANIZED.
SO MUCH BEING DEVELOPED. IS THIS LAND IS BEING USED IN
CERTAIN WAYS. IT’S NOT NECESSARILY THE CASE.
SO THE QUESTION MIGHT BE, SO WHY, WHAT SORT OF THE HOLD UP
IF THE LANDS ARE AVAILABLE, AND THEY CAN BE USED IN THIS
WAY, WHAT IS HOLDING UP THAT PROGRESS?
A LOT OF THINGS. PEOPLE POINT TO A LOT OF THE
ISSUES. OBVIOUSLY, IN A VERY
COMMERCIAL CONSUMER DRIVEN 11 SOCIETY ECONOMICS PLAY OUT IN
A HUGE PART. ESSENCE OF LAND AND LABOR IN
HAWAI’I ESPECIALLY WHEN OUR POLITICAL THERE IS REALLY
GEARED TOWARDS SUPPORTING
INDUSTRIES THAT MAYBE DON’T TAKE HAWAI’I FIRST, RIGHT?
TOURISM VERY EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY.
MILITARY IS A VERY EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY.
AND THESE YET, WHAT WE’RE VERY HEAVILY RELIANT ON.
TAKES I THINK A VERY CLEAR VISION AND WILL AND I THINK WE
SEE THAT IN THE PAST. WHEN WE LOOK AT HOW THESE
SYSTEMS OF AGRICULTURE LAID OUT IN TERMS OF POLITICAL
DIVISIONS AND HOW THEY REALTY TO VERY KEY LEADERS IN
HAWAI’I’S HISTORY. VERY KEY CHEIFS THAT ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE
BREADFRUIT BELT IN KONA, WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF HELEMOA
COCONUT GROVE IN DOWNTOWN WAIKIKI.
TOOK POLITICAL WILL AND VISION TO ESTABLISH THESE THINGS IN
THE FIRST PLACE AND TAKE THAT AGAIN TODAY TO SEE IT HAPPEN.
>>THINK I REALLY QUICKLY, TO PIGGYBACK WHAT I THINK IS
HAPPENING, IN THE POSITIVES, COMMUNITY HAS TO BE BACK AT
THE TABLE. I THINK IF IT’S ANCESTRAL
TIME, PEOPLE CARED FOR THE LAND, WEREN’T SERVANTS.
THEY WERE CONTENT EXPERTS.>>DEEP SCIENCE AND PRACTICES
HOW TO MAKE FOOD GROW WITHIN THEIR SPECIFIC SPACE.
THERE’S BEEN A HUGE MOVEMENT TO RECLAMATION OF PRACTICE FOR
MANY YEARS NOW. NOW, HAVE YOU THIS 12
MULTIMILLION DOLLAR INDUSTRY CALLED INNOVATIVE EDUCATION.
PEOPLE ARE RESTARTING PRACTICES.
HAWAI’I RENAISSANCE IN THE SEVENTIES.
MY FATHER KAALA FARMS, EARLY MOVER IN THAT.
NOW BEEN NORMALIZED BEHAVIOR. OUTPUT SOCIAL INDIGENOUS
ENTERPRISE MAU, MOVING INTO MASS FOOD PRODUCTION AND OTHER
THINGS THAT REPLICATE HOW OUR ANCESTORS LIVE IN PLACE.
METRICS THAT ARE BEGINNING TO COME OUT OF IT IN TERMS OF
SALES, IN TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT FIGURES AND THOSE TYPES OF
THINGS, THE BUSINESS OF GOVERNMENT IS THIS.
WHAT WE BEGIN TO RECLAIM THE ECONOMIC ENGINES AND COOL
THINGS AGAIN, IT BEGINS TO NECESSARY PART OF THE CHEIFS
WHO PUT THE IDEAS OUT, MAKAINA TOOK THE IDEAS AND MADE THEM
PRACTICE. THOSE DYNAMICS ARE EMERGENT.
THERE’S A LOT OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR BAD LEADERSHIP TO MOVE OUT
OF THE WAY. PEOPLE COMING IN HUNGRY.
>>Lara: QUESTION FOR YOU. ALL OF REALLY.
DO YOU THINK THAT FOR A LOT OF THE FOLKS WHO WERE INVOLVED IN
INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURAL AND LOCAL AGRICULTURE, LOCAL
COMMUNITY, TRYING TO BUILD THAT, THERE’S MORE OF A
RECOGNITION NOW WITH THE WORLD WE LIVE IN, THE WAY THE STATE
IS NOW, THE POLITICS INVOLVED, THAT THOSE TYPES OF METRICS OR
RESEARCH TO SHOW OUTCOMES NEEDS TO HAPPEN FOR IT TO MOVE
FORWARD ON A LARGER SCALE. I DON’T THINK THAT’S
NECESSARILY JUST HERE EITHER. WE THINK ELSEWHERE. 13
IS THERE MUCH MORE THAT DEMAND AND ALSO RECOGNITION THAT
NEEDS TO HAPPEN WITHIN THE PRODUCERS THAT THAT’S PART OF
THE PROGRESS NOW?>>RESPOND TO THAT.
COUPLE OF I WAS. I THINK THAT THE SCIENTIFIC
LITERATURE NOW MATURING AROUND MORE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE
OR BIOLOGICALLY DIVERSIFIED FARMS SYSTEMS.
AND THE RANGE OF ECOSYSTEMS SERVICE OR ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS
DERIVED FROM THESE TRADITIONAL OR BIOLOGICALLY DIVERSIFIED
FARMING SYSTEMS. I THINK SOCIETY BEGINS TO
VALUE THE ECOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF CERTAIN TYPES OF FARMING
PRACTICES, WE BEGIN TO RECOGNIZE THE COST OF THE
INDUSTRIAL MODEL OF AGRICULTURE, SOCIETY GOING TO
BEGIN TO MAKE DIFFERENT CHOICES.
WE THINK SEE THAT. AGAIN, WITH THE GROWTH OF THE
ORGANIC FOOD INDUSTRY. PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO PAY FOR
DIFFERENT SET OF ECOLOGICAL PERHAPS HUMAN HEALTH OUT COMES
FROM THEIR FOOD. HERE IN HAWAI’I, JUST BRIEFLY
SAY THAT THERE’S A LOT OF INCREDIBLE SUCCESSES AND
INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY HAS BEEN A REMARKABLE JOB OF RESTORING
ELEMENTS OF TRADITIONAL FOOD IN AGRICULTURAL WAYS.
IN TERMS OF CHANGING FUNDAMENTALLY ASPECTS OF FOOD
PRODUCTION AND THE FOOD SYSTEM OF HAWAI’I, JUST IN TERMS OF
LOCAL PRODUCTION, THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF
STRUCTURAL OBSTACLES THAT WE FACE.
HIGH COST OF LAND. HIGH COST OF LABOR OR ACCESS 14
TO SKILLED LABOR. AND ACCESS TO CAPITOL ARE SOME
OF THE TOP THREE THINGS THAT FARMERS HERE IN HAWAI’I,
WHETHER THEY’RE TRADITIONAL FARMERS OR COMMERCIAL FARMERS,
FACE IN TERMS OF INCREASING THE SCALE PRODUCTION TO
ACHIEVE SOME KIND OF GOAL THAT GOVERNOR IGE HAS SET.
>>Lara: ONE THING THAT CAME TO MIND.
WHEN I THOUGHT ABOUT THIS DISCUSSION, PROMISES BY THE
ADMINISTRATION TO DOUBLE FOOD PRODUCTION.
SO I THOUGHT ABOUT SOME OF THE MANY WONDERFUL PROJECTS, WORK
IN THE DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES, HAD DONNA AMAZING THINGS FOR
DEVELOPING AGRICULTURE IN THOSE AREAS.
WHAT IT TOOK IN MONEY AND COST AND CAPITAL.
TO EVEN TO GET TO THAT LEVEL OF PRODUCTION.
HOW SO MANY ENTITIES REALLY WEREN’T ABLE TO SUSTAIN OR
COULDN’T SUSTAIN FOR THE LONGTERM BECAUSE THE AMOUNT OF
RESOURCES HAD TO BE PUT INTO IT, AND THE TIME LIMIT OR THE
TIME FRAME IS TO LIMITATIONS ON THOSE RESOURCES.
TWO YEARS. YAY.
THEN WHAT? WHAT IS YOUR, YOU KNOW YOU’RE
NOT INVOLVED DIRECTLY IN GOVERNOR IGE’S PROGRAMS, BUT
WHAT IS YOUR THOUGHT IN GENERAL AS TO ARE WE, AS A
GOVERNMENT, AS A POLITICALLY, ARE WE THINKING ABOUT WHAT
NEEDS TO HAPPEN, IN INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURE IN
GENERAL HERE IN HAWAI’I, FOR IT TO BE TRULY SUSTAINABLE,
TRULY SUSTAINABLE?>>NO. 15
I’M SORRY. WE FUND OUR DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE GETS .4% OF OUR STATE’S BUDGET.
WE LITERALLY PUT 0 RESOURCES TOWARD THIS ISSUE.
YOU CAN’T EXPECT ANY CHANGE WITHOUT PUTTING TIME AND
EFFORT AND CAPITAL TOWARDS IT. I MEAN, I THINK THAT’S THE
FIRST THING WE NEED TO CHANGE. WE NEED TO TAKE IS SERIOUSLY.
.4% OF OUR BUDGET GOES TOWARDS AGO.
GETTING IN TROUBLE WITH GOVERNOR IGE, I THINK IT’S A
JOKE.>>Lara: HAVE YOU SEWN A
SHIFT AT ALL IN THE MINDSET, ONCE THIS INITIATIVE WITH
GOVERNOR IGE STARTED, WERE YOU FEELING IT?
WERE YOU SEEING IT? OR IS THERE STILL —
>>I THINK YOU NEED TO TAKE THE HIS HISTORICAL CONTEXT
INTO CONSIDERATION. TURNING THE TITANIC.
LOOK AT THE PAST 200 YEARS OF HAWAIIAN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS,
DOMINATED BY PLANTATION AGRICULTURE, AND THEN
GENETICALLY MODIFIED SEED PRODUCTION, AND WE HAVE A VERY
LONG HISTORY OF NOT SUPPORTING WHAT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT AT
THE TABLE TODAY. TO MAKE THOSE SHIFTS IS NOT AN
INSTANTANEOUS THING. IT IS TURNING THE TITANIC.
IT’S SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO TAKE I THINK, LONG AND
SUSTAINED EFFORT TO SEE THOSE LARGE SCALE SHIFTS THAT NEED
TO HAPPEN. AND I MEAN, I THINK WE’VE SEEN
SHIFTS IN THE CONVERSATION. I DON’T THINK WE’VE SEEN
SHIFTS IN MUCH OF THE APPLIED RESOURCES YET. 16
>>I THINK THAT WHEN WE TALK ABOUT INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE,
ONE OF THE VALUES IS YOU’RE INVESTING IN YOUR PLACE, AINA
AND GENEALOGY THAT FEEDS YOU EVERY SINGLE DAY IN
PERPETUITY. THAT’S KIND OF THE DIFFERENCE
OF THE PRINCIPLES WE’RE SEEING IN SOME OF THE AGRICULTURE
THAT WE’RE FOCUSING ON TODAY. SHORT TERM GAINS.
SHORT TERM LEASES FOR HIGH PROFITS IN A SHORT AMOUNT OF
TIME FOR EXPORT. NOT THINKING ABOUT IF IT IS
KANAKA IWI HARMING THE ISLAND AND NOT THINKING ABOUT ONLY
MAKING MONEY FOR TEN YEARS. YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT HOW IS
MY MOOPUNA, GRANDCHILDREN GOING TO LIVE ON LAND.
YOU INVEST DIFFERENTLY. INVEST IN INFRASTRUCTURE
DIFFERENTLY. PLANT DIFFERENTLY.
BECAUSE YOU ARE PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY.
REALLY.>>I THINK THAT’S, YOU CAN’T
TAKE AGRICULTURE OUTSIDE OF THE BROADER CONTEXT OF
SOCIETY. GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS THAT WE
HAVE NOW. AND I THINK PRECONTACT SOCIETY
THAT OUR KUPUNA GAVE US, FOCUS WAS ON PEOPLE.
AND LANDSCAPE. NONMONETARY ECONOMY.
AND THE WHOLE BUSINESS OF GOVERNMENT WAS TO ENSURE THAT
PEOPLE, CONNECTION AND LANDSCAPE.
WEALTH THAT WAS GENERATED, THAT THEY TRACK PRODUCTIVITY
OF YIELDS OF CROP AND FITNESS OF PEOPLE AND EQUILIBRIUM OF
SYSTEMS. TO RESTORE THE ABILITY FOR US 17
TO BE THAT DEEPLY ATTUNED TO OUR LANDSCAPE, BE ATTUNED TO,
AND HAVE THE RESOURCES FLOW IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION ALMOST
ASKING FOR A FULL SCALE SHIFT OF GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMIC
SYSTEMS. TO VALUATE.
NOW, KIND OF STUCK WITH YOU KNOW HOW MUCH MONEY IS BEING
PUT TO SUPPORTING TOURISM AND SUPPORTING TOURISM.
FOR YEARS. THAT’S WHERE THE INERTIA IS,
PAYING EVERYBODY’S BILLS. TAX REVENUE IS GOING TO THESE
THINGS. REALLY TALK ABOUT SUPPORTING
AGRICULTURE AND DOING THESE THINGS, GOING TO BE A WAKE UP
MOMENT WHERE IT’S PROBABLY GOING TO COME IN THE FORM OF A
HURRICANE. WE’RE GOING TO FIGURE THESE
THINGS OUT. AFTER THAT, I THINK, IT WILL
BE A LOT MORE, REALLY SERIOUS. HAVE TO TAKE IT THERE.
I DON’T WANT TO BE ALARMIST, BUT I DO THINK — I HAVE
COMPASSION FOR PEOPLE THAT ARE TRYING.
I THINK IT’S SHIFTING THIS INERTIA, 200 YEARS OF COLONIAL
CONTEXT. IT’S GOING TO TAKE REALLY
RADICAL THINKING OF THINGS. I DO BELIEVE THE SEASON IS
THERE AN PEOPLE ARE DOING THE WORK ACROSS THE BOARD.
HOW WE’RE WORKING TOGETHER MORE AND MORE.
>>Lara: I WANT TO GET BACK TO THAT.
VIEWER QUESTIONS. KIND OF BOUNCING ALL OVER THE
PLACE. FROM IN MAUI.
MAUI HAS 65% AGRICULTURAL LAND. 18
MUCH OF WHICH IS NOT BEING USED.
IS NOT NOW BEING USED. DOES THE STATE OR COUNTY OF
MAUI HAVE PLANS FOR ITS USE? HOW MUCH OF YOU ARE FAMILIAR
WITH PER COUNTY. WHAT YOU’RE SEEING.
AS FAR AS HOW THEY’RE USING THE LAND.
IT THAT’S SHIFTING AT ALL.>>WELL, I WOULD SPEAK TO A
BROADER POINT. I DON’T KNOW THE DETAILS OF
MAUI CASE STUDY. BUT I WOULD SAY THAT ONE OF
THE THINGS THAT HAWAI’I AGRICULTURE FACES IN TERMS OF
KEY CHALLENGE IS VERY HIGH COST OF PRODUCTION.
AND RELATIVE TO THE COST OF SHIPPING THINGS FROM
CALIFORNIA, FORECLOSURES. AND BECAUSE WE HAVE VERY HIGH
COST OF PRODUCTION, LACKING A LOT OF CRITICAL
INFRASTRUCTURE, COMING OUT OF THE PLANTATION ERA, IT’S
DIFFICULT FOR FARMERS TO BE ECONOMICALLY VIABLE AND
COMPETE IMPORTS FROM CALIFORNIA AND ABROAD, GIVEN
THE OVERALL COST OF PRODUCTION HERE IN HAWAI’I.
INCLUDING THE START-UP COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH TAKING LAND
THAT WAS ONCE SUGAR CANE AND TRANSFORMING IT INTO SOME TYPE
OF DIVERSIFIED AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS.
>>Lara: ONE POINT BLANK QUESTIONS WE HAVE HERE.
HOW DO YOU PLAN TO MAKE THIS TYPE OF CROP ECONOMICALLY
FEASIBLE. THAT’S REALLY THAT SCALE
ABILITY WE’RE TALKING ABOUT HERE.
>>THERE’S EXAMPLES. HAWAI’I ULU PRODUCERS 19
COOPERATIVE ON BIG ISLAND, YOU KNOW, FORMING.
CALLED THESE MID SCALE AGITATION ROLES.
SO HAWAIʻI HAS 7,000 SMALL FARMERS.
FEW REALLY LARGE LANDOWNERS. VERY FEW MID SCALE FARMS.
WHAT HAPPENS IS YOU HAVE THESE LARGE DISTRIBUTERS OF WHICH WE
ONLY HAVE ABOUT FIVE IN THE STATE BRINGING ALL OF OUR
FOOD, GET IT TO MARKET, AND BASICALLY, IT’S IMPOSSIBLE TO
CONNECT DOTS FROM THESE MALL SCALE PRODUCERS INTO THESE
REALLY LARGE DISTRIBUTERS. THERE’S A HANDFUL OF EXAMPLES
IN THE STATE ADAPTATIONS, HAWAI’I ULU PRODUCERS
COOPERATIVE, KAAHUMANU ON OAHU, STEP NOTHING THAT ROLE,
WHERE TAKING THE SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION, AGGREGATING IT UP,
GETTING IT INTO THE VOLUME OF WHERE YOU CAN GET ECONOMICS OF
SCALE, AND THEN THEY’RE FEEDING INTO THESE LARGE SCALE
DISTRIBUTERS AND GETTING THE FOOD TO MARKET.
THERE IS A LITTLE BIT OF A PRICE PREMIUM FOR LOCAL FOOD.
THERE’S A LOT OF MARKETS WILLING TO PAY THAT.
ESPECIALLY IN THE TOURISM MARKET RIGHT NOW.
AND A LOT OF THE ACTIVE RESIDENTS, THERE IS A MARKET
FOR THE STUFF. AND I THINK AS YOU BUILD THE
SCALE, THEN COSTS DO COME DOWN MORE AND MORE AS WELL.
SO THERE’S A LITTLE BIT OF A CHICKEN AND EGG CONCEPT.
>>Lara: GOOD WAY TO LOOK AT IT.
ONE OF THE QUESTIONS. HOW IS THIS INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURE ACCOMMODATING LIFESTYLE? 20
DEFINITELY NATIONAL DISCUSSION ON, YES, THERE IS THIS
INTEREST IN DEMAND. IN LOCAL INDIGENOUS ORGANIC
FOOD. BUT THE COST IS SO HIGH, IT’S
NOT A REALITY FOR A LOT OF THE PEOPLE OFTENTIMES ARE THE ONES
THAT WHO NEED IT THE MOST BECAUSE IT’S NOT WITHIN THAT
PRICE POINT.>>THAT’S THE THING WE’RE
TACKLING. WHY IT’S CRITICAL FOR
COMMUNITIES TO RECLAIM PRODUCTION.
WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO DO AT MAU.
SCALING.>>Lara: SHOW SOME OF THE
VIDEO WHILE YOU TALK ABOUT IT. GREAT.
GOOD STUFF. I THINK WE DO.
SHOWING SOME OF THE LARGE FIELDS OUT THERE. YOU SEE
BEHIND THERE.>>RECENTLY PURCHASED EXCESS
OF 25 TO 30 ACRES OF LAND. NOT JUST GROWING CROPS,
GROWING PEOPLE. SOCIAL END PRIZE, NOT JUST
PROFIT. REVENUE.
YOUNG ADULTS FROM WAIANAE, 20 WEEKS ON THE FARM.
FULL TUITION, WAVING COLLEGE AND $500 A MONTH.
OVER THE LAST, RECRUIT THEM AS COHORTS.
ASK THEM TO BE PART OF THE PROGRAM FOR 2 YEARS TO GET
THEIR ASSOCIATES AND MOVE ON TO THE BACCALAUREATE.
WHAT WE’VE SEEN SCALING IS THAT WE HAVE INCREASED AMOUNT
GETTING DEGREE, GETTING COLLEGE DEGREES, FROM THE
FARM. THE OFFERINGS AT THE FARM. 21
ALSO SCALING THE AMOUNT OF PRODUCTS WE’RE ABLE TO BEAR.
BECAUSE OF THE SCALING AND THE RESOURCES THAT HAVE BEEN
OUTPUTS OF THE FARM, ABLE TO ATTRACT INCREDIBLE RESOURCES
KAMEHAMEHA SCHOOLS PARTNERING. GOT TO TRANSFER THE PROFESSOR
MILES AND PARTNERSHIPS WITH UNIVERSITY OF HAWAIʻI WEST
OAHU, CODESIGNED A BACCALAUREATE OF APPLIED
SCIENCES. COMMUNITY FOOD SYSTEM.
SCALING MEANS OF PRODUCTION. SCALES YOUNG WORKFORCE AND
INFRASTRUCTURE, HIGHER EDUCATION AROUND THIS.
SKILLED LABOR IN OUR COMMUNITY.
>>Lara: MAKING THEM SEE THERE’S A FUTURE.
>>ASKING THEM TO BE FARMERS. USE DEGREE PROGRAM TO FINANCE
THEIR EDUCATION. THEY CAN GO INTO MANY
DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. BUT I THINK THEN, THEY’RE
TAKING FOOD HOME TO THEIR FAMILY AS GROWERS AND
CONSUMERS. MOVING OUT OF POVERTY AND
GETTING DEGREES THAT WITH ALLOW HELP TO BE PURCHASING AT
HIGHER PRICE POINT AND BUILDING A MARKET.
THERE’S EXAMPLES THERE.>>WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT COST,
YOU HAVE TO TAKE ALL COSTS INTO CONSIDERATION.
SOCIETY DOES NOT. I GREW UP ON MAUI WITH HC&S
EMPEOPLE COMPLAIN ABOUT THE BURNING OF CANE.
EMPTY 28 RIVERS IN A ROW IN EAST MAUI TO FOOD THAT
AGRICULTURE. THERE’S A LOT OF NEGATIVE
COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH CERTAIN TYPES OF AGRICULTURE. 22
AND CONVERSELY, POSITIVE COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH CERTAIN TYPES
OF AGRICULTURE THAT ARE NOT CURRENTLY VALUED.
BUT THOSE AGRICULTURE SERVICES PROVIDE.
>>Lara: GOOD POINT. I WAS GOING TO SAY.
YOUR RESEARCH. POINT IS SUSTAINABLE
AGRICULTURE AND INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURE, CULTURAL BENEFITS.
AGRICULTURAL BENEFITS. PROVIDING SERVICE TO THE
COMMUNITY. FOOD IS BEING PRODUCED.
HUGE INDUSTRY OF EDUCATION. BUNCH OF MONEY GOING IN
EDUCATION. INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM
ASKS PROVIDE THAT SERVICE. AND SO THAT MONEY, WHEN WE
THINK ABOUT ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE, CAN’T JUST BE
THINKING ABOUT SELLING CROPS FOR MONEY.
>>Lara: I THINK YOU’RE ALL ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS THAT
DALE JUST ASKED. HOW CAN WE ENCOURAGE YOUNG
PEOPLE TO BE FARMERS? WHAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT.
INVESTMENT WHO THEY ARE AS PEOPLE AND WHAT THEY WANT FOR
THEIR FUTURE.>>ALSO, ALTERNATIVE MODELS.
STUCK WITH THE IDEA, YOU’RE A FARMER OR NOT.
ONE OF THE FOR PROFIT BUSINESSES WE’VE CREATED BIG
ISLAND, WORKERS COOPERATIVE WHERE YOU OWN PERCENTAGE OF
THE FARM THAT YOU WORK ON. BASICALLY, IT ALLOWS YOUNG
PEOPLE TO FARM BUT NOT NECESSARILY HAVE TO BE
FARMERS. AND HAVE A REAL OWNERSHIP
STAKE. 23 MAKE MONEY.
BE CONNECTED TO THE FOOD. BE CONNECTED TO LAND.
NOT BE 100% TIED TO THE FARMING LIFESTYLE.
>>Lara: GOOD POINT. UNDERSTANDING MIND SET OF THE
GENERATION COMING IN NOW. WHAT IS IT THEY WANT?
AND NEED?>>REALLY QUICKLY.
PART OF IT IS FARMER, ENGLISH DOESN’T MEAN THE SAME THING IN
HAWAI’I.>>Lara: PRECONTACT.
>>CONTEXT. YOUR FAMILY MEMBER WAS ALSO
YOUR EMPLOYER. ALSO YOUR EDUCATOR.
ALSO YOUR SPIRITUAL LEADER. YOUR FARM IS ALSO YOUR CHURCH.
ALSO YOUR EDUCATION SPACE. ALL OTHER THINGS.
REALLY HOLISTIC. ONE FACE PUTTING MULTIPLE LIKE
MEASURABLE POSITIVE OUTPUTS. WHAT IT MEANS TO BE AN
INDIGENOUS ENTREPRENEUR IS NOT BROWN PEOPLE MAKING MODERN
MONEY. REFUSING TRADE COST
PRODUCTION.>>Lara: WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT
WHICH CROPS THAT WE SHOULD BE LOOKING AT, NOT JUST BECAUSE
WHAT THEY CAN PRODUCE, THINKING ABOUT THE WHAT IS THE
COUNTER EFFECT OF CERTAIN TYPES OF CROPS AND WHY OTHERS
MIGHT ULTIMATELY BE MORE PRODUCTIVE?
AN MORE, FOCUS ON, WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT THE OTHER FACTORS
PLAYED IN CERTAIN TYPES OF CROPS.
WHY INDIGENOUS CROPS MAKE SENSE IN THAT REGARD.
RETURN, ACTUALLY ULTIMATELY GREATER WHEN WE INTRODUCE
THOSE OTHER FACTORS. 24>>I THINK IT’S NOT JUST ABOUT
THE CROP ALONE. IT’S ABOUT THE SYSTEM.
AND THE CROPPING SYSTEM THAT YOU HAVE GOING ON.
ONE OF THE GREAT THINGS ABOUT SUSTAINABLE OR INDIGENOUS
SYSTEMS, IT’S MIXED. THERE IS NOT JUST A CULTURE
BEING PLANTED ONE CROP. MONOCULTURE.
KIND OF MIMICKING A FOREST. ECOSYSTEMS IF YOU THINK ABOUT
A FOREST, OR THE GROUND COVER, MID STORY AND THERE’S A
CANOPY. AND THAT’S WHAT I LOT OF
INDIGENOUS FARMING SYSTEMS AROUND THE WHOLE WORLD DO.
SERVES TO REGULAR CLIMATE. WIND BREAKS.
IT CAN HAS MORE, MORE MOISTURE.
PROVIDES SHADE. IF YOU EVER FARM, WE HAVE SOME
PHOTOS. DIFFERENT PHOTOS AND SOME OF
THE GRAPHICS THAT REALTY HERE. PART OF WHAT YOU’RE TALKING
ABOUT. PHOTOS FIRST.
KONA RESTORATION SITE. PICTURES.
EXPLAIN WHAT YOU WERE DOING HERE.
WHAT WAS THE GOAL?>>RESTORATION SITE IN
KAHALUU. WORK OF JESSE, WANT TO
RECOGNIZE HIM. ACTUALLY A DEMONSTRATION AREA.
WE WORK IN THE LARGEST INTACT ROOM AT THE KONA FIELD SYSTEM.
LARGEST CULTURAL SITE IN ALL OF HAWAI’I.
THIS PARCEL ON KS LAND WAS REDISCOVERED 2000.
OVER 4,000 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES.
AND SO WE BRING STUDENTS HERE. 25 JESSE FARMS THIS AREA.
OBVIOUSLY, THERE’S LOOK AT THAT PICTURE, STRAWBERRY GUAVA
LOG, MULCH AREA FOR THE AWA. INVASIVE SPECIES.
SHOWING THAT HE’S REALLY UTILIZING DIFFERENT MULCHES
THAT WEREN’T TRADITIONAL, BUT THAT ARE AROUND.
JUST USING THE PRACTICES OF THAT PLACE.
THAT HE’S ADAPTING TO. WE’RE PLANTING NATIVES THERE
TO REALLY SERVE THE NATIVE BIODIVERSITY OF THE AREA.
USE THE DEMONSTRATION. MOST OF THE KIDS GREW UP IN
THEIR BACKYARD. STONES EVERYWHERE.
YOU DON’T REALIZE THIS WAS A TRADITIONAL FARMING SYSTEM.
A LOT OF IT IS COFFEE. SOME BULLDOZED.
SOME IS INVASIVE SPECIES. WE WANT TO SHOW INTEGRATED
SYSTEM HOW IT COULD BE DONE. DOESN’T HAVE TO BE DONE THAT
WAY. PARENTS TALKING ABOUT, IT’S
ADAPTIVE TO PLACE. IT’S REALLY JUST TEACHING
PEOPLE THAT YOU DON’T HAVE, THIS WAS OUR COSTCO.
WHAT WE TELL THE KIDS. WE DIDN’T HAVE TO GO TO THE
GROCERY STORE. WE COULD GROW EVERYTHING HERE.
AND YOU SHOULD BE PROUD THAT YOUR KUPUNA DID THIS HERE.
>>Lara: KEN TALKING ABOUT WHAT CROPS, ONES WE WANT TO BE
THINKING ABOUT AND FOR WHAT REASON.
HE SAYS, RICE CAN BE GROWN ANYWHERE.
TARO CAN BE GROWN. MORE PEOPLE IN HAWAI’I EAT
RICE. HIS OPINION RATHER THAN POI.
WHY NOT PUSH FOR RICE RATHER 26 THAN TARO.
TALKING ABOUT CROPS MAYBE CREATE SUSTAINABLE FOOD SOURCE
IN THE ISLANDS. WHAT WOULD WE FOCUS ON AND
WHY? WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS?
>>CAREFUL. THINKING ABOUT THE CROP
ITSELF. WHAT IS SOMETHING WE NEED TO
THINK ABOUT.>>RELATIONSHIP.
BETWEEN KALO AND IDENTITY. RICE IS SACRED TO JAPAN.
YOU MAKE SAKE. DEPOSITION.
WHAT I LOVE ABOUT ANCESTORRERS, ALL PEOPLE’S
ANCESTRY, ULTIMATELY PRACTICAL.
ROLE OF KALO AND PRODUCTION, LOI SYSTEMS CREATED IT.
WERE ALL SOLD. TIED TO LIKE OUR PHYSICAL
MAKE-UP. DNA.
INTRINSICALLY TIED TO KALO. CONSUMING, HELPING US TO
RECALIBRATE HEALTH DISPARITIES YOU BEGIN TO SEE AND HOW
NUTRIENT DENSE IT IS. YOU CAN’T TALK ABOUT RESTORING
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS WITHOUT RESTORING IMPEACHMENT
RESTORATION OF IDENTITY IS KEY PART OF THIS WHOLE THING.
PACKED TO THE LANDSCAPE. THAT WE’RE GOING TO BE WORKING
TO RESTORE KALO IS REALLY CRITICAL.
OTHER SIDE, THERE’S AN EMERGING MARKETPLACE FOR KALO.
RIDICULOUS. BECOMING A HOME-GROWN
MOVEMENT. REALLY GREAT CHEFS.
ED KINNEY, LINDSAY OZAWA, USING KALO FOR YEARS, HIGH END
RESTAURANTS UP AND DOWN 27 WAIALAE.
THERE’S A MARKET FOR IT. BUILD THE LAND AND IDENTITY
BACK TO THE FOOD.>>COIN CULTURE WASN’T STATIC.
GET LOCKED INTO THINKING HAWAIIAN CULTURE WAS A POINT
IN TIME WHEN CAPTAIN COOK ARRIVED.
EVEN OUR CROP ASSEMBLAGE CHANGED.
A LOT OF EVIDENCE SHOWN THAT THE ORIGINAL PEOPLE WHO SHOWED
UP IN THE FIRST WAA HAD A SET OF CROPS THAT INCLUDED KALO,
BUT SOME THINGS CAME A LOT LATER.
SWEET POTATO CAME LATER IN OUR HISTORY.
GOT DAPPED AND FOLDED IN AND BECAME PART OF OUR CULTURE AND
IDENTITY FOR CERTAIN AREAS. ARER SO I THINK WE NEED TO
ACCEPT THAT. THAT THERE WILL BE ALWAYS BE
ADAPTATIONS, EVOLUTION, CHANGE OF CULTURE, AND THERE IS NO
REASON WE CAN’T FOLD IN OTHER CROPS INTO THAT.
EVERYONE AROUND THIS TABLE SAID, IT’S MUCH MORE ABOUT THE
UNDERLYING VALUE SYSTEMS, THE CROPPING SYSTEM ACE WHOLE THAN
ANY ONE PARTICULAR CROP.>>BUT THE OTHER ISSUE, POINT,
I WANT TO MAKE, ALMOST ALL OF OUR WORLD CROPS ARE COME FROM
INDIGENOUS TROPICAL AREAS. VIRTUALLY EVERYTHING.
IF YOU WENT BACK 20,000 YEARS IN EUROPE, BASICALLY GOT
BARLEY. THAT’S IT.
EVERYTHING THAT YOU THINK ABOUT AS EUROPEAN, TOMATOES
POTATOES, EGGPLANTS, ALL OF THAT CAME FROM TROPICAL
AGRICULTURAL AREAS. THEY WERE INDIGENOUS CROPS
THAT GOT APPROPRIATED INTO A 28 GLOBAL FOOD SYSTEM.
AND I THINK AS WE MOVE FORWARD IN A GLOBAL FOOD SYSTEM, THESE
UNDERUTILIZED CROPS, THINGS LIKE KALO, BREADFRUIT, KASABA,
QUINOA, ALL OF THESE THINGS FROM AROUND THE WORLD HAVE A
MAJOR ROLE TO PLAY IN DEVELOPING MAJOR FOOD SYSTEMS
GLOBALLY.>>Lara: CAN YOU COMMENT ON
FEEDING EXTRA 9 MILLION VISITING MOUTHS WE HAVE TO
FEED EVERY YEAR? ANY THOUGHTS ON THAT?
WHOLE ANOTHER SCOPE.>>FOR ME, QUICKLY, PART OF
THE WORK AS MAO HAS BEEN WORKING WITH CHEFS.
ABILITY TO BE THEY CATER TO A GREAT EXTENT TO AUDIENCE,
BRINGING REVENUE FROM THE URBAN CENTER IN RURAL
COMMUNITY. WE CAN’T CONTROL WHO CAN AND
CAN’T COME. ABOUT YOU WHAT WE CAN CONTROL
IS MARKETPLACE AND PROVIDING THEM FOOD AND INSURING REVENUE
FROM THEIR MEALS GOES BACK INTO COMMUNITIES.
AS ALSO, DOING A LOT OF WORK IN EDUCATING THEM WHILE
THEY’RE HERE. ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF NOT
JUST INDIGENOUS FOOD, BUT COMMUNITIES MAKING THEIR FOOD
AND SEEING THIS AS A WAY TO BUILD ALLIES.
SO THEY CAN BE ENLIGHTENED CONSUMERS AND GET THEM BACK
AND WANT TO PURCHASE MORE OF OUR STUFF IF THEY HAVE ACCESS
TO EXPENDABLE CAPITAL. BUYING HEALTHY FOOD.
>>SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO COME TO HAWAI’I
WOULD WANT AUTHENTIC EXPERIENCE.
WOULD PAY A PREMIUM KNOWING 29 THAT THEY’RE SUPPORTING
INDIGENOUS PRACTICES OR ECOLOGICALLY BASED
AGRICULTURE. ONE OF THE AREAS OF RESEARCH
THAT SOME OF OUR U.H. ACADEMICS CAN ENGAGE.
THAT WOULD BE UP TO SURVEY THE VISITOR INDUSTRY.
REALLY FIND OUT WHAT IS THE PRICE PREMIUM IF ANY, THAT
VISITORS ARE WILLING TO PAY TO BYPRODUCTS AT OUR GROWN HERE
IN HAWAI’I AND GROWN IN A WAY THAT IS ALIGNED WITH THE VALUE
OF THE PEOPLE OF HAWAI’I.>>Lara: BRINGS UP A GOOD
POINT. TALKING ABOUT CONNECTION
BETWEEN BRINGING PEOPLE IN INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY AND MAKE THE CONNECTION WHERE THEY GET
THEMSELVES, PURSUE IT FOR THEIR LIVES WITHIN THE BROADER
COMMUNITY, WHAT DO THEY WANT TODAY?
WHAT ARE THEY USED TO GETTING IN RETURN THAT DEEPER LEVEL
EDUCATION, THAT DEEPER LEVEL OF FEELING LIKE THEY’RE DOING
SOMETHING FOR THE COMMUNITY IN SOME SHAPE OR FORM.
RESONATES MORE AND MORE WITH PEOPLE WHO ARE HERE OR
ELSEWHERE. BECAUSE THAT’S SORTS OF OUR
SOCIETY TODAY. THEY WANT THAT CONNECTION IN
GENERAL.>>I WOULD LIKE TO MENTION,
BRIEFLY, I THINK IT’S THE STATE HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO
PLAY IN TERMS OF MAKING SURE THAT ALL PEOPLE HAVE ACCESS TO
QUALITY FOOD. WE’VE BEEN TALKING ABOUT THE
GROWTH OF THE LOCAL FOOD INDUSTRY AND I THINK
REPEATEDLY, SAID, WELL, HIGH 30 END MARKETS.
BUT NOT EVERYONE CAN AFFORD HIGH QUALITY FOOD AND OFTEN
LOW INCOME COMMUNITY MEMBERS ARE EXPOSED TO FOOD
ENVIRONMENTS AND RELATIVELY LOW QUALITY OF FOOD THAT IS
DRIVING THIS OBESITY EPIDEMIC AND DIABETES EPIDEMIC.
STATE HAS A ROLE TO PLAY IN TERMS OF MAKING SURE THAT
EVERY INDIVIDUAL IN OUR SOCIETY HAS THE PURCHASING
POWER TO GAIN ACCESS TO QUALITY FOODS AS WE’RE MAKING
THIS TRANSITION TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY.
>>Lara: WHAT DOES THE PANEL THINK OF THE CURRENT AND
FUTURE POTENTIAL OF INCREASING LOCAL LAB GROWTH, OR LAB
GROWN, MEAT, FISH, MILK, OTHER VERTICAL AGRICULTURE, MUCH
MORE COST-EFFECTIVE THAN TRADITIONAL HORIZONTAL
AGRICULTURE? THOUGHTS ON THAT?
>>I DON’T KNOW TON ABOUT IT. TEACH ST. PAUL SEGMENT ABOUT
IT IN OUR CLASS. HE’S RIGHT.
FROM WATER EFFICIENCY STANDPOINT.
SPACE EFFICIENCY STANDPOINT. THEY’RE PHENOMENAL.
I THINK THE NETHERLANDS, A AMAZING WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE
STATISTICS WHAT THEY’RE ABLE TO PRODUCE IN A TINY AREA,
VERY SMALL, GROWING SEASON. AND YET, THEY’RE VERY SELF
SUFFICIENT IN TERMS OF FOOD BECAUSE OF HIGH TECH FARMING
METHODS. I THINK IT’S SOMETHING THAT
SHOULD BE CONSIDERED. THERE ARE NO NEGATIVES,
NUTRIENT DENSITY DOES GO DOWN IN THESE FOODS.
THERE’S OBVIOUSLY HARDER TO 31 HAVE A CONNECTION.
WE TALK ABOUT ALL OF THESE EXTRA BENEFITS OF AGRICULTURE,
OF IDENTITY, OF BEING CONNECTED TO LAND, AND PLACE,
AND EDUCATION, AND YOUR CHURCH AND ALL OF THESE THINGS CAN BE
EMBODIED IN AGRICULTURE, IT’S MUCH HARDER DO THAT, I WOULD
SAY, IN THESE HIGH TECH SHALL AN AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTS.
BUT I DO THINK THEY HAVE A ROLE TO PLAY.
IN A BROADER FOOD SYSTEM. TOUGH BALANCE.
GOOD QUESTION FOR SURE.>>Lara: TALKING ABOUT SOME
OF THE POTENTIALLY DIVERSIFYING, THINKING ABOUT
DIFFERENT WAYS THAT WE COULD WORK WITH SOME OF THESE CROPS.
KNOCK OFF EWA BEACH SAYING, KALO USED PHARMACEUTICALS IN
COSMETICS. WHY IS NOT KALO EXPLOITED MORE
WITHIN THE INDIGENOUS WILLING INDUSTRY?
I THINK THIS POINT BEING IS, OKAY, LOOKING AT AS FAR AS
FOOD SOURCE. ARE WE LOOKING AT IT BEYOND
THAT? FOR THE SAKE OF GROWING
INDUSTRY AND THIS CROP?>>I WOULD SAY TRADITIONALLY,
THIS JUST GOES TO THE MULTIFUNCTIONALITY POINT, WE
ONLY HAD SO MANY CROPS. AND WE HAD, WE EXTRACTED EVERY
RESOURCE OUT OF THOSE CROPS POSSIBLE.
KALO WAS MEDICINE IN THE PAST. ULU, BREADFRUIT, GUM AND EVERY
ONE OF OUR CROPS WAS NOT JUST FOOD, BUT HAD MULTIPLE
BENEFITS. TIMBER AND GUM.
I WANT TO AGREE WITH THE VIEWER’S POINT LIKE THAT’S
SOMETHING THAT NEEDS TO BE 32 BETTER INCORPORATED.
>>Grace: DON’T THINK A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE DOING THAT NOW,
BUT I THINK RELATIONSHIP I THINK, WHICH IS CRITICAL, WE
CANNOT SEE THESE CROPS, PURELY A PRODUCT TAKE TO MARKET.
I THINK THAT IS THE COMPLEXITY OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE DOING
BUSINESS. HAVE TO HAVE BUILT IN VALUE
SYSTEM. NOT JUST A PRODUCT, USE IN
DIFFERENT WAYS. INTO THINKING ABOUT IT.
IN THAT SENSE, AS FAR AS PHARMACEUTICAL.
MAYBE NOT SO MUCH COSMETICS. LEARNING EXPERIENCE TOO?
>>YEAH. IT’S A SHARING OF CULTURE
ITSELF. FOOD PRODUCTION TO MARKET,
FOOD SPACE OF EDUCATION AND SPIRITS SPACES OF EMOTIONAL
RESTORATION. LOI KALO HAVE BEEN WONDERFULLY
USED, A ADDICTION, A LOT OF THOSE THINGS HAPPENING.
HOW WE MARKET IT AND CREATE PRODUCT OUT OF IT GOING TO
TALK ABOUT INDIGENOUS PERSPECTIVE.
CASH CROP, GOING TO BE REALLY DEEP VALUES CONVERSATION ABOUT
THAT TIED TO HOW WE, ANCESTORS UNDERSTOOD.
>>Lara: I THINK WHAT I’M HEARING, AND WHAT AGREE WITH
IS, THAT INDIGENOUS BUSINESS, GOING TO GO ABOUT THINGS.
DIFFERENT WAY. OR IF YOU HAVE INDIGENOUS
VALUE SYSTEM, YOU WOULDN’T NECESSARY EXPLOIT KALO FOR
MONEY, CASH ONLY. BUT LIKE WE’RE NOT SAYING IT’S
NOT POSSIBLE TO SELL KALO TO DO COSMETICS IF IT WAS DONE IN
THE RIGHT WAY AND PROPER 33 CONSULTATION AND PROCESS.
YOU FELT LIKE YOU’RE DOING THE RIGHT THING FOR THE COMMUNITY,
THEN THAT’S THE RIGHT THING TO DO.
>>Lara: QUESTION. SLIGHT LEFT TURN HERE.
INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURAL FARMERS GROWING MARIJUANA FOR
MEDICINAL PURPOSES?>>A LOT HAPPENING IN THAT
AREA. NOBODY WANTS TO TAKE THAT ONE?
>>YOU WERE GOING TO SAY?>>I’M GOING TO VENTURE TO SAY
YES. BUT NO ADDITIONAL COMMENT.
>>Lara: POP AROUND A LITTLE BIT HERE.
FROM MIKE FROM KOA RIDGE. STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
CHANGED RULES SUCH AS POTABLE WATER REQUIRED FOR FARMING.
HOW MUCH WILL HAWAI’I INCREASE AGRICULTURAL IF POTABLE WATER
IS NOT AVAILABLE. HOW MUCH DOES THAT PLAY A ROLE
INTO RESEARCH YOU WERE DOING AND THE SCALABILITY OF THESE
TYPES OF INDIGENOUS CROPS? WHAT IS THE REALITY?
WHAT HAVE YOU SEEN?>>WHAT I THINK ABOUT THAT IS
I JUST THINK THAT, YES, FRESH WATER, LIMITED FRESH WATER
SUPPLY ON THIS PLANET ON THIS ISLAND.
WITH CLIMATE CHANGE, WITH THREATS, LOSING OUR FOREST,
MAIN DRIVER OF OUR AQUIFER, WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A SHORTAGE
OF WATER. BUT I THINK WE NEED TO THINK
ABOUT IT IN THE CONTEXT OF OUR ANCESTORS THAT, YES, THERE IS
ALWAYS, DROUGHTS. PROBLEMS.
AND THEY ADAPTED SYSTEMS LIKE WE WERE TALKING ABOUT.
ADAPTED SYSTEM OF FOOD 34 PRODUCTION.
THAT EITHER INCREASED WATER, MAINTAINED WATER SOURCES, USED
LESS WATER, I THINK THAT IS JUST THE PRINCIPLE WE’RE GOING
TO HAVE TO — THAT’S THE REALITY OF THE SITUATION.
>>Lara: I HAVE TO GET TO TOM’S TECHNICAL QUESTION.
LIVES ON FORMER SUGAR CANE LAND.
HOW LONG SHOULD HE LET THE LAND LIE FALLOW BEFORE
FARMING?>>HE’S ASKING YOU.
>>ASKING THE WRONG GUY. BACKGROUND, I DON’T CLAIM TO
BE SOIL SCIENTIST. WE HAVE WONDERFUL — POP QUIZ.
DEPENDS IT IS CONCERN IS. RESIDUE, CHEMICALS AND THINGS
LIKE THAT. MY ANSWER WOULD BE THAT
BEHAVIOR, SOIL, DEPENDS A LOT ON MANAGEMENT.
HOW YOU TREAT YOUR SOIL IS ALSO GOING TO DEPEND HOW LONG
IT NEEDS TO TAKE TO RECOVER. THERE’S A LOT OF THINGS CAN
YOU DO TO HELP THAT ALONG. IT’S RECOVERY PROCESS.
NUMBER ONE THING, ORGANICS. CARBON IS THE BEST THING YOU
CAN DO FOR YOUR SOIL. MY AMOUNTS OF MULCHING,
COMPOSING, GETTING CARBON INTO YOUR SOIL IS A GOOD METHOD OF
REMEDIATION.>>Lara: FEW MINUTES LEFT.
>>Grace: WANTED TO ASK EACH OF YOU.
YOUR ASSESSMENT AT THIS POINT, AS TO BUILDING, INDIGENOUS
AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY, AS WELL AS SUSTAINABILITY, AGRICULTURE
AS A WHOLE, IN HAWAIʻI, WHERE DO YOU FEEL WE ARE NOW TODAY
AND WHAT DO YOU THINK THE NEXT STEPS NEEDS TO BE TO MOVE US
IN THAT DIRECTION? 35>>I GUESS I’LL GO FIRST.
>>Lara: SURE.>>SO I THINK WE KIND OF ALL
SKIRTED AROUND THE ISSUE THAT WHAT IS HOLDING US BACK FROM
INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE. I THINK WE NEED TO SAY CLEARLY
THAT KANAKA IWI NOT JUST DISCONNECTED AND PUT UNDER
COLONIAL STRUCTURES, DENIED ACCESS TO LAND.
OIWI DENIED ALSO DENIED TENURE AND STEWARDSHIP OVER LAND AND
THAT’S HUGE. WHEN YOU CAN’T LIVE ON YOUR
AINA, ANCESTRAL LANDS HOW ARE YOU GOING TO FARM IT?
FOR ME, JUST ONE WAY TO, INDIGENOUS AGRICULTURE ONE
VEHICLE TO BE CONNECTED PEOPLE TO PLACE.
>>Lara: I WANT TO LET EVERYBODY GET IN HERE.
WONDERFUL. NEXT STEP.
>>I THINK THE NEXT STEPS IS THE STEPS WE’VE BEEN TAKING.
INCREDIBLE RESILIENCE HAPPENING IN COMMUNITY.
YOU HAVE SUCH GIFTED PEOPLE DOING THE WORK.
I THINK MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE, THINGS PEOPLE CAN DO, IS TO
FEEL URGE TO CLAIM AGENCY OVER THEIR OWN FOOD SYSTEM.
BECAUSE YOU’RE ALL INDIGENOUS IN SOME PLACE.
HAPPEN TO BE IN HAWAIʻI. REACH OUT AND FIND OUT WHAT IS
HAPPENING IN YOUR COMMUNITY AND MAKE IT A POINT MUCH YOUR
LIFE TO BE ENGAGED. NO ONE IS EVER GOING TO BE
EXPERT IN EVERYTHING. YOU CAN TRY AND START.
I THINK ONCE BECOMES COLLECTIVELY UNDERSTOOD AS
IMPORTANT, WE’RE GOING TO MOVE.
>>Lara: TO YOU? 36>>I THINK WE NEED MORE COMMON
OR SHARED VISION AND TARGETS AND METRICS FOR ACHIEVING
ELEMENTS OF FOOD SYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY.
>>Lara: WORKING ON IT.>>THINKING ABOUT WHAT IS OUR
VISION, WHERE ARE WE TRYING TO GO BEYOND THE GOVERNOR’S
INITIATIVE OF DOUBLING FOOD PRODUCTION.
WHAT ARE THE OTHER METRICS THAT WE WANT TO HIT IN TERMS
OF SOCIAL EQUITY, INDIGENOUS SELF-DETERMINATION AND SO
FORTH. AND CREATE A COMPREHENSIVE
RESEARCH, EDUCATION, COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT OUTREACH EFFORT TO
ACHIEVE THOSE GOALS BY A DESIGNED TIME PERIOD.
>>Lara: NEXT STEP IN WHAT IMPORTANT?
>>LOFTY THINGS. I MEAN, JUST VERY PRACTICALLY,
RICHARD HA, I DON’T AGREE WITH EVERYTHING HE SAYS, BUT HE HAD
ARTICLE RECENTLY THAT IF THE FARMER MAKES MONEY, THEY’LL
FARM.>>Lara: THAT IS PART OF THE
REALITY.>>PART OF THE REALITY.
SEEN A LOT OF INDIGENOUS FARMERS EVICTED FROM THEIR
LAND BECAUSE NOT ABLE TO PAY TAXES, PAY THEIR RENTS.
>>Lara: I KNOW THAT IS GOING TO BE DISCUSSION THAT COULD GO
ON FOR ANOTHER HOUR. THANK YOU FOR TOUCHING ON
THAT.>>MAKING SURE PEOPLE RELIEF
US THAT THOUGHT. MAHALO TO YOU FOR JOINING US
TONIGHT – AND WE THANK OUR GUESTS –
NATALIE KURASHIMA INTEGRATED RESOURCES MANAGER FOR
KAMEHAMEHA SCHOOLS 37 KAMUELA ENOS, SOCIAL
ENTERPRISE DIRECTOR FOR MA’O ORGANIC FARMS
ALBIE MILES, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SUSTAINABLE
COMMUNITY FOOD SYSTEMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI’I, WEST
O’AHU. AND NOA LINCOLN, ASSISTANT
PROFESSOR FOR INDIGENOUS CROPPING SYSTEMS AT UH MANOA.
NEXT WEEK ON INSIGHTS – THE STATE IS DRAFTING POLICY
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SO-CALLED RED LIGHT CAMERAS TO MAKE
HAWAIʻI’S ROADS SAFER. IS THIS A GOOD IDEA. JOIN US FOR THE
DISCUSSION. I’M LARA YAMADA FOR INSIGHTS
ON PBS HAWAI`I – A HUI HOU!