– Alright, Mr. D, let’s talk
about pesticide mode of action. Very important, especially
when you’re talking about dealing with those pests
that are out there. – Right, insecticides, insect
mode of actions and a little bit of fungicides, there are — Important to understand that
there are different modes of action of these
different products. And my first introduction
to insect resistance was in was in 1978, 79 when I was
doing some work looking at a new product called Insecticidal
Ear Tag so in cattle to try to prevent, to kill horn
flies and face flies and things like that in cattle. And we learned very quickly
that the ear tags were impregnated with a new,
relatively new class of product called a synthetic
pyrethrin, or a pyrethral. Which is, and it worked
real well for a year or two and then we started noticing
that it didn’t do as good a job. And I can remember that some
of the folks denying that there was such a thing
as insect resistance. And then after a very short
while they had to admit, there is. And I also, as an extension
agent, I can remember recommending Seven
to kill fleas. And I remember that the dosage
went up and after a while the dosage was like ten times
what it used to be and that’s because the fleas were
becoming resistant to carbaryl which is not as common, a
carbamate insecricide is not as common for resistance to
develop, but that does happen. Some of the classes
of insecticides are
resistance happens quicker than others. But, I can give you a list of
some of the different modes of action that are out there. And there’s over 20. – Well is it because these
insects are reproducing so quickly and there’s
so many generations? Is that sort of the key–
– Of course. – To why resistance
happens so quickly? – That and, you know, if you
kill 98% of the populations you think, well that’s pretty
good, but that two percent reproduces–
– [Voiceover] Pretty quick. – And probably most of their
offspring are also resistant and then you can see
how over a period of– – Doesn’t take long.
– Short period of time you can have all sorts of problems
and many of these insects have multiple
generations per year. So that can really
create a problem. But, you know, a
acetycholinesterase
inhibitor is one, it inhibits, you know, causes
of, basically a nerve gas. It’s a nerve gas
that kills insects. And that actually, these
insecticides were developed from nerve gases that were
developed back in the 30s and 40s or 20s and 30s
for other uses, you know? Back then. But there’s acetylcholine
receptor antagonists, there’s nicotine acetycholine
receptor agonist. – That’s would be the nicatoids
we’re hearing about now? – Right.
– That’s what that is. It targets the central
nervous system. – They’re insect growth
regulators that inhibit ky and synthesis and there are– – So that keep them
young or something. – They’re too young to
reproduce, you can’t reproduce. And so, it may not kill
you, but it keeps you from reproducing which is important. – That’s pretty neat stuff. – Molting disruptors, there
are electron transport inhibitors, there’s a lot of
different products out there. And the take home point from
this is, don’t continue to use the same insecticide. I know when I was in the
cattle business we would, for years and years and years
cattle producers have used a back rub, the cows can
go under and it rubs an insecticide on their back
and it kills the critters. But, very, very quickly
I learned to use
one type of product this year, next year I
completely switch to another. I might use an organophosphate
this year and then a pyrethrin next year.
– [Voiceover] Rotate. – You know rotate your
classes to prevent resistance. It’s resistance management,
trying to prevent creating a super critter. – Shift totally your mode of
action is what you’re doing? – [Voiceover] Right. You can do that, there are
products out there that you’ll notice on the shelf
that have two different products in them. They have two different
modes of action in them. You know, kind of be careful
using those both out at the same time because the
critter that survives that is resistant to two
modes of action. But fortunately we’ve
got over 20, you know, we’ve got a lot that
we can deal with. – That’s a lot to choose from.
– I don’t think we’re gonna have super bugs.
– I hope not. – Any time soon. – Now what about fungicides? – Fungicides, the same
thing, we found that, and that was probably the
last organism that I’ve seen that’s developed a resistance. But even it’s been
out there for a while. I remember even back in the
80s we were using benlate. We were using a real common
benomyl, a real common fungicide and it was
starting not to work as well as it used to. So they’ve switched the classes. But there are strobilurins
which is several of the real common heritage signas
compus, are strobilurins which we have seen some fungal
diseases develop a resistance to in the agricultural
community. Paul got a leaf spot in
shore beans, as an example. But, so, you can add another
class, a triazole with that and in the agricultural
community, you usually don’t completely switch to another
because some of these fungicides have a lot of
strength on several diseases, some of them have
strength on other disease. Then if you completely stop,
you’ll control this disease then you’ll have another
disease that’ll wipe you out. But in the agricultural
community when fungal resistance is encountered, most of the
time the farmers will have to use a product that’s got
multiple modes of action. But, in your backyard for
black spot control in roses, you know, you can go with
Daconil, but there are several things that I– Chlorothalonil.
– Chlorothalonil. (indistinct conversation) – And that’s a strobilurin,
but Daconil is not. Strobilurin, where’s Daconil? Chlorothalonil, it’s
a chloronitrile. So it’s a totally different. Same thing with blight
on tomatoes mancozeb and chlorothalonil are two
fungicides and they’re totally different classes. Mancozeb is a dithane
four junction pentathol, or Mancozeb and they’re
in the M3 class. Dithiocarbamate’s and relatives. And then Captan is another
product, it stands alone. It’s in the M4
thalidomine group and– But keep in mind, if it has,
strobilurins, if it has strobin on the end of it’s active
ingredient, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin, or
whatever, it’s a strobi. And just keep in mind, don’t
just stick with the same fungicide, mix it up if you can. And that’s why I read off
all of those when I list a bunch of products that’ll
control the disease. – That’s your take home
message so we appreciate that, Mr. D.