(soft music) – [Announcer] The
following is a production of New Mexico State University. (soft music) – With the dawn of every harvest season comes the influx of
invasive weeds and insects to the Navajo Nation. These pests invade and destroy healthy, productive crops. Sometimes, pest population control is a necessary step to
assure that crops survive and are as plentiful as possible. Natural enemies will take
care of some of the pests, but the rest is up to the farmer. Timely crop rotation, removal of the food that pests eat, and planning the timing of
planting, growing and harvesting will get rid of some of these pests. But pesticides are often still needed to achieve economic control. The single most important
step in using pesticides is to always read the label and follow the directions
on the label exactly. You are responsible by law for any damage caused by pesticides
to people or property. By reading the label on
the pesticide container, you will have all the information you need to protect yourself and others. First, determine the
pest you need to control and which chemical is
best fit to control it. Selective pesticides will kill only the weed or insect that is its target. Non-selective pesticides could kill more than just the target. There are many different
types of pesticides. Each is named based on the pest it is designed to control. Once the type of pesticide is determined, the formulation can be selected. Formulations are either liquid or dry. There are four types
of liquid formulations. Solutions are one formulation that comes ready for use and requires special application equipment. Flowables must be mixed with water. Aerosols in low concentration are often used indoors
as a fine spray or mist. Liquified gas fumigants
turn into gas when applied. Some are packed in pressure containers. But before attempting to
use any of these pesticides, be sure and read and understand all the instructions on the label. Pesticide labels include
the following information. How to use the product
correctly and safely, the brand name, and the type of formulation. Active ingredients will be listed by common name and by chemical name. All other non-active ingredients will also be listed. Net contents and the manufacturer of the product will be named. It is critical when using a pesticide that you are aware of its toxicity. The label will indicate if the pesticide is highly toxic, moderately toxic, or if it is a less toxic formulation. Essential first aid and
physician information for pesticide poisoning treatment is contained on the label in case of an accidental poisoning. The labels also indicate
which pests will be controlled and how, where and when the pesticide is to be applied. Again, it is illegal to use any pesticide if you do not follow the
instructions on the label. There are a few simple but important safety measures you must take to protect yourself when using pesticides. Make sure your body is fully covered and that you are wearing neoprene gloves. These gloves should be long enough to protect your wrists. Shirt sleeves should
be outside your gloves to keep pesticides off your hands. Cotton gloves are dangerous unless the pesticide label indicates otherwise. Wear long sleeve shirts, pants, and coveralls that will fit outside your gloves and boots
to protect from spills. Goggles or a face shield are also necessary protection
when using pesticides. After you have used the pesticide, change your clothes immediately. Wash your gloves, hat,
face shield and boots every day and check gloves for leaks. Never store or wash work clothing with the family laundry. Be sure to read and follow the directions on pesticide labels exactly, otherwise, pesticides can be lethal. Breathing vapors or skin contact is one of the most common methods of pesticide poisoning. Pesticides can enter your skin in greater amounts than you
could swallow or inhale. Pesticide drifts can be dangerous, so when mixing and pouring pesticides, keep them below eye level and work with the wind to your side. Operate equipment so that the pesticide drift is away from you. Keep unauthorized people and children away when using pesticides. This will help avoid
accidental eating or drinking. Know the signs and symptoms
of pesticide poisoning so that first aid can be
administered immediately. A person with mild pesticide poisoning will exhibit signs of fatigue, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, excessive sweating, nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. Moderate pesticide poisoning will include all of these symptoms, plus the inability to walk, weakness, chest discomfort, muscle twitches, and
constriction of pupils. With severe poisoning, the person will become unconscious, experience severe pupil constriction, muscle twitches, secretions
from the mouth and nose, and difficulty breathing. If pesticide poisoning occurs, call the paramedics immediately. Then read the label for
any first aid information. Pesticide labels contain
practical treatment information. If skin contact has been made, remove the pesticide quickly. If the pesticide has been splashed in the mouth or swallowed, rinse the mouth out immediately. Pesticides can be used
safely if labels are read, proper equipment and
protective clothing is worn, and directions are followed precisely. Pesticide users must also take their environment into consideration. When wind drifts occur, the pesticide is moved
outside of the target area and can be harmful to non-target plants, animals, water and people. Do not apply pesticides in
moderate or strong winds. Use a low pressure spray to avoid drift. Pesticide runoff can
kill fish and wildlife and leech through the soil, contaminating groundwater. One of the most important ways you can protect your environment is with the careful storage and transportation of pesticides. The recommended way to carry pesticides is to place the container
in a plastic tub or bucket. This tub should be large enough to hold the contents of
the original container, should it leak or break. Secure the plastic tub in
the bed of a pickup truck. Store pesticides in its
original labeled container. The storage building
should have a cement floor. Always store pesticides
away from water or streams. Always store pesticides
in a cool, dry place out of direct sunlight. If pesticides are spilled, confine the spill by building a dike, or by soaking up the spill
with sawdust or soil. Once soaked up, shovel
into a leak-proof container for disposal into a
special pesticide landfill. Wash containers at least
three times before disposal. All containers must be
destroyed or buried after use. Pesticide use is a safe and
simple way to control pests. Just remember that the most common mistake in pesticide use is made by ignoring one or two safety procedures or pieces of equipment. Every procedure and piece of equipment listed on the label is important. As long as they are properly used, pesticides will help produce plentiful, healthy crops today and in the future. (soft music) – [Announcer] The
preceding was a production of New Mexico State University. The views and opinions in this program were those of the author, and do not necessarily represent the views and opinions of
the NMSU Board of Regents.