So we’ve got about ten minutes left, so I’m going to start talking about these real quick. I’ve got some pictures to show you guys. So this is more of that grass buffer. So this is really just, like, kind of like a gravel strip that goes along the side. It gets the stormwater before it gets into the grass, et cetera. So this is actually kind of what we call a “pre-treatment.” And this can get a lot of your solids off and so forth. And this is actually a lot easier to maintain than if it were going into a catch basin or something like that. There’s a grass buffer, swales. We’re pretty familiar with this stuff. We’ve been using these practices for a while. We haven’t been using these practices so much, so this is an example of that bioretention. So this is designed to have all the stormwater go inside of this area right here, and there’s some infiltration capabilities, there’s often some storage, so there’s sand or something like that, some kind of media that has a depth to it so we can store it in there, and then have the plants uptake some of that water. So this is that bioretention. This is a little bit more of an elaborate construction of it. It can be as simple as, you know, going out to the yard and digging a hole and putting some mulch and media in there, and plants, et cetera. So that simplified version often we call a “rain garden.” This is more of an engineered system. It might have under-drains even that are designed in here. Here’s a simple one, a bioretention, this is a parking lot island bioretention, so you can see instead of grading our — a lot of times we build these things with vegetation and their mounted way up high. We just take that principle and invert it where we want to put it down low and re-route the water in there. (Inaudible) Well this is used — actually there’s a parking lot the hospital or the clinic that’s over here on Indiana that just went in, they have these that look just like this in their parking lot. I haven’t seen them. Have you guys seen what they look like? (Inaudible) They’re harder, they’re much harder maintenance. There’s no doubt that the maintenance issue is different. I’ve seen people that actually like them for snow removal because you put the snow on there and it, you know, takes everything. (Inaudible) I agree, here’s the other problem with that is a lot of times that media is supposed to be fairly light and loose, and you put the snow on there and it starts compacting it down, and next thing you know you get a compressed thing, it doesn’t infiltrate anymore. Okay, here’s another example of it bigger, again, off of a parking lot. Here’s the overflow point. So it goes in at the corner over here and goes through this system. Here’s an extended detention basin. Again, this is more of our traditional. One of the things that even Urban Drainage is trying to get away from is you see the concrete pilot channel, you know, for your dry weather flows, which is, you know, your car washing and what we oftentimes call “urban slobber,” it just kind of stuff is always draining into there. It could be illicit connection, it could be, you know, car washing, it could be over irrigation spray or something like that. We kind of always have a constant flow in our urban areas. None of that’s getting treated in those pilot channels, so they’re trying to go a little bit more away from that and have, you know, a rock-lined channel or something that’s designed to at least treat some of that dry weather flow. Or like this, having a little wetland or something like that to try to pre-treat it and post-treat it. Here’s another example of extended detention basin with their outlet. Again, this is a typical urban drainage. Have you guys seen these kinds of outlets? This is that urban drainage design. That’s where that came from. What about mosquitoes (inaudible)? That’s a good question. (Inaudible) So if I go back to — this one actually is maybe a good example. This is one that’s ponded right now, so the rainstorm came pretty recently. This is designed to drain within 24 hours, to at least get below subsurface. So that’s one of the advantages of bioretention is you’re trying to get that water so it’s not ponded. A lot of the ones you’ll see with drains three of four feet up in the air, the water never gets that high. That’s a design problem. That’s a design or construction problem, you know. Yeah, you’re exactly right. I spent a lot of time going around different places in the Greater Denver region looking and finding exactly those issues. I give a whole other presentation on operation and maintenance of these things, and that’s one of the first keys is has it drained within 24 hours, you know, it is something that needs to be looked at? (Inaudible) That’s right. That’s often the case. And so when you’re looking at something like this, this can be a mosquito breeding problem. The idea is that it’s supposed to drain within a certain amount of time, unless it’s a wetland. West Metro put a fire station down at south Kipling with a big, huge retention basin. They put some kind of a fountain in there and they had water, and they kept the water moving through that. That does help. Excuse me, Bill. Yes, that definitely helps. It also helps to oxygenate the water, because otherwise what happens is we get that, you know, algae to start building up in there, and it gets stinky, it looks bad, et cetera. So that’s one of the reasons why they put those fountains there is both for vector control, for mosquitoes, and for the algae control. Okay, so other ones that — this one actually doesn’t work so well for EPA meeting the Energy Independence Securities Act, but we do a lot of underground storage. If you infiltrate it, it is okay. So, again, a lot of times our sites are constrained, and so this is the only way you have to store it. We don’t have the opportunity for surface storage, so we might use something like this for underground storage. Again, if you’re doing that retain on-site for that 95th percentile, if you infiltrate it, this is still okay. There’s what it looks like inside some of these things. And there’s all different kinds of designs. There’s what I call the “milk crate” design, so there’s these plastic blocks that you can put together, there’s big ones like this that are more vaults. So there’s all different kinds of this. There’s probably 30 permutations in 30 companies that make these different kinds of things, so all different kinds of opportunities there. They all are more expensive, so that’s the one downside is you’re going with that, expense. All right, quiz two, you guys ready? An effective stormwater runoff is, A, sediment, dirt can cloud water and destroy habitats; B, hazardous materials such as pesticides, motor oil, and other chemicals can harm living organisms; C, polluted stormwater effects drinking water which in turn can effect public health; or D, all of the above? D, all of the above. Right. Anybody live up north, Westminster, Thornton? You know where your drinking water is coming from? Clear Creek, and then it goes to Standley Lake, and then it gets treated, and it comes to your tap. So all those places can get stormwater runoff, in Clear Creek, in Standley Lake, so you got to think a little bit about that. That’s why, by the way, there’s some boating regulations in Standley Lake is because they want to keep it clean, keep less oil out of it. Okay, number two on this one, which of the following areas is one of the potential stormwater contaminants of the DFC: garden areas, the roadways and parking lots, indoor storage of chemicals, or none of the above? Make you think a little harder. What was that? B as an answer? Any other answers? B is correct because right now we’re considering the garden areas as holding the water there for the most part, of course, we have to use pesticides and fertilizers responsibly. The roadways are what we’re really looking at as generating that runoff and that flow to the stream. Indoor storage of chemicals, we’re assuming because it’s indoors that it’s not getting any stormwater. And then, of course, none of the above is out of there. So pollution prevention and good housekeeping for DFC operations, the first one on there is storm water management training, being in here. This is part of a good housekeeping. Landscaping and lawn care, understanding what needs to be done with that, how much fertilizer to use, where to use it; ground maintenance, pest control, street and parking lot sweeping, de-icing. We haven’t talked about de-icing, we use a lot of those de-icing chemicals, where do those things go? There you go, they’re responsible for that. Spill response, and then training refresher, okay; illicit discharge, this is also a part of that. Maintaining existing storm sewer maps, so, again, that’s having that idea where is that inlet, where could our source be. Now there could be something like a cross connection or something that we don’t know about. There are still some of those might exist on the site. But, for the most part, we’re looking at these chemicals going in through the storm drains, so chemical storage and containment, very important part of it. Illicit connections is what I just mentioned about plumbing and floor drains, that’s one of the goals is, for instance, if there’s a floor drain you might not know that it connects there to that pipe because no water’s ever gone down it until you get that spill and somebody’s like, “Well we’ll just wash it into that hole that’s there at the bottom floor, everything seems to be draining there anyway.” So that might be connected to the storm drain and go right out to the creek like in that picture right there. The other things that we’re doing, that Bill’s doing is annual dry weather survey, so I mentioned that flow. But when we see flow during dry weather you have to a lot of times go and inspect it and see what the heck is going on, what is the source of this. So that’s something that Bill’s responsible for, among others. And non-storm water discharge assessment forms, so these are the forms that we’re using to be able to track some of that. I mentioned turf grass management and other vegetative activities. Again, it’s really just being smart and responsible about how much you’re using, where you’re using it, not getting a lot of overspray, same with the pest management, where are you using it, how long does it last, et cetera. And these often are generating, you know, pesticides and nutrients to our systems. Moat areas, do you guys know where the moat areas are? I’m sure some people go, “Yeah, I spent too much time there.” So I highlighted in there, there’s the moat areas. The other areas, do they necessarily need fertilizer, do they need other management? Maybe occasionally, maybe annually. (Inaudible) Weed control. Annually, I mean once a year. Okay. (Inaudible) That’s true, too, if you’re using glyphosate or some other kind of control. (Inaudible) That’s right. So it can grow back pretty quick. So, and then knowing how to apply it, things like that. So this is actually a part of that, you know, knowing the application, how to apply it, et cetera. Here’s some of the chemical storage and things that we see in terms of stormwater runoff, you can see the sheen right here from asphalt. When we see bubbles coming out of a pipe usually that’s a trigger for me to say, “What the hell’s going on.” And I’ve been, by the way, in streams where I saw the whole stream this high in bubbles, and that’s not a good thing. (Inaudible) Yeah, South Platte, yeah, over by Suncor that happens. But it’s also, depending on what the issue is, that could be EPA coming in and assessing a large fine. So that’s where you really have to be careful. And those fines are cumulative and can be very expensive. So reporting, these are some of the reports that — the items that go into the annual report. I just listed them up here so you guys are aware. You don’t have to go through this. The ones in red are all the forms that are out there for you guys to fill out and that you think, “Ah, this is a pain in the ass, why am I doing this?” Well guess what, it’s a part of the requirements for the NPDS permit. So we’re not trying to do it to be onerous on you and just say, “Well, we don’t trust you,” it’s part of the permit and we keep track of these and we put them in that and we submit it on an annual report to EPA every year, so it’s important. Oh, quiz three, all right. We’re nearly done. You guys ready? If a spill occurs on DFC grounds the appropriate action would be: A, pretend that you didn’t see it, walk away, go on with your job as usual; B, get a water hose and try to clean it up; C, contact your supervisor or report it directly to the Environmental Program Manager Or call 9-1-1 and report the spill? C. (Inaudible) That’s right. There are other procedures. There are other procedures, and you’re right, it depends on what the chemical is because maybe 9-1-1 is the proper response. If you call 9-1-1 the fire department has bigger hoses. That’s right, they’re got bigger hoses. All right, next one, who should be aware of stormwater management requirements and pollution prevention of site: the GSA Environmental Program Manager; only the maintenance and custodial staff; the director of the DFC service center, the one who’s signing their name to the permit; only the on-site contractors; or everyone? Everyone. Everyone is responsible, right. (Inaudible) Only Jesse (sp). All right, last one. The purpose of the stormwater training that we’re here today is to provide a hazardous material response plan — we got that together, right, you’re working on it right now, right, you got your hazardous material response plan done; prevent or minimize the introduction of pollutants into water of the state; or design a stormwater pollution mascot for the DFC? It doesn’t look like me, I can tell you that. Both A and C. Do we want to do C? No. Let’s just do B, to prevent or minimize the introduction of pollutants. That’s right. We really want to minimize that; that’s the purpose of why we’re here. Also to let you guys know that, you know, part of the reason why you’re here is that we’ve got all those forms and so forth because that’s a responsibility for the Denver Federal Center, that they have to keep that information. Again, it’s not just to be a pain in the ass, it’s to document the stuff, make sure things are done properly so that fines aren’t levied. All right. Any questions? Any questions that didn’t come up during the talk? (Inaudible) Huh? Who do you think that is? Is that you? That’s a stormwater geek right there. I’m doing that all the time. You’re talking about seeing the water that’s high and so forth, I’m in there looking to see where’s the water, how’s it getting out, where’s the pipes. (Inaudible) That one I didn’t. That one I didn’t. It’s not a combined space until six feet under. Actually, isn’t that the purpose of the manhole (inaudible)? To get in there, but, guess what, I didn’t have a manhole hook to get in there. So, any questions? You guys got burning questions? I really didn’t hear about talking about TCEs and how do we treat TCEs when it comes up. Well, any questions? All right, thanks everyone for attending. Appreciate you being here. Go do good.